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Interaction of two long-crested shallow water waves is analysed in the framework of the two-soliton solution of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation. The wave system is decomposed into the incoming waves and the interaction soliton that represents the particularly high wave hump in the crossing area of the waves. Shown is that extreme surface elevations up(More)
Mining activities in South Africa changes the natural environment in several ways. Challenges for mining companies lie in the detection and monitoring of surface subsidence and there exists a need for a long term monitoring system. Field-based techniques for deformation measurement are labour intensive and time consuming and, consequently, the(More)
We have shown that Zeeman splitting of the sodium (Na) D-lines at 5890 and 5896 Å can be used to measure the magnetic field (B-field) produced in high current pulsed power experiments. We have measured the B-field next to a return current conductor in a hybrid X-pinch experiment near a peak current of about 500 kA. Na is deposited on the conductor and then(More)