Jeanine D. Plummer

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Currently applied indicator organism systems, such as coliforms, are not fully protective of public health from enteric viruses in water sources. Waterborne disease outbreaks have occurred in systems that tested negative for coliforms, and positive coliform results do not necessarily correlate with viral risk. It is widely recognized that bacterial(More)
Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that(More)
The effect of ozone on the trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) formation of two algae species was investigated. Scenedesmus quadricauda (green alga) and Cyclotella sp. (diatom) were cultured under controlled conditions and harvested in the log or late log growth phase. Experiments examined the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from the(More)
Two screening methods, reagent dipsticks for hematuria and urine filtration for Schistosoma haematobium eggs, were evaluated for their sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing infection with S. haematobium in lightly infected Ghanaian children. Schoolchildren aged 8-18 years (n=255) provided urine samples on three occasions. Overall, 36.4% of girls and(More)
With increased focus on watershed protection under the Surface Water Treatment Rule, indicators that discriminate among sources of microbial inputs (microbial source tracking) are needed to supplement the quantitative information provided by total and fecal coliform measurements for drinking water monitoring. Bifidobacteria are found in the digestive tract(More)
BACKGROUND Urogenital schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium was endemic in Adasawase, Ghana in 2007. Transmission was reported to be primarily through recreational water contact. METHODS We designed a water recreation area (WRA) to prevent transmission to school-aged children. The WRA features a concrete pool supplied by a borehole well and a(More)
For the past century, public health officials have relied on fecal coliforms to identify and track bacterial contamination. However, several issues arise when using coliforms as indicators for viral pathogen risk. First, there is a lack of association between fecal coliforms and human enteric viruses in the environment. Second, there are differences in the(More)
Bacterial indicator organisms are used globally to assess the microbiological safety of waters. However, waterborne viral outbreaks have occurred in drinking water systems despite negative bacterial results. Using viral markers may therefore provide more accurate health risk assessment data. In this study, fecal, wastewater, stormwater, surface water (fresh(More)
Populations with poor access to water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure are disproportionately affected by the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As a result, WASH has gained increasing prominence in integrated control and elimination of NTDs, including schistosomiasis. In order to identify underserved populations, relevant measures of access(More)