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Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is the most common paediatric malignancy in equatorial Africa and was originally shown to occur at high-incidence rates in regions where malaria transmission is holoendemic. New ecological models of malaria that are based on both parasite prevalence and disease have been described. In this study, we examined district level(More)
Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL), the most common childhood cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, occurs at a high incidence in western Kenya, a region that also experiences holoendemic malaria. Holoendemic malaria has been identified as a co-factor in the etiology of this cancer. We hypothesized that eBL may cluster spatially within this region. Medical records(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite increases in routine vaccination coverage during the past three decades, the percent of children completing the recommended vaccination schedule remains below expected targets in many low and middle income countries. In 2008, the World Health Organization Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization requested more information on the(More)
Schools are known to play a significant role in the spread of influenza. High vaccination coverage can reduce infectious disease spread within schools and the wider community through vaccine-induced immunity in vaccinated individuals and through the indirect effects afforded by herd immunity. In general, herd immunity is greatest when vaccination coverage(More)
Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) has been linked to Epstein-Barr virus and holoendemic Plasmodium falciparum malaria. These co-infections, however, are insufficient to explain the non-random occurrence of Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma within Equatorial Africa. To explore whether this distribution could be explained by household characteristics and family(More)
This epidemiologic study reports incidence, severity, and risk factors of swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis). Daily diaries about water exposures and swimmer's itch symptoms were completed by 40 riparian households at Douglas Lake, Michigan, for July 2000. Minutes spent in the water, minutes in shallow water, location, time of day, preventive action,(More)
Swimmer's itch (cercarial dermatitis) affects people engaged in open-water activities. We report incidence and risk factors for a US lake. Water exposures and swimmer's itch experience were reported daily for riparian household residents and guests at Douglas Lake, Michigan, in July 2000. Incidence of swimmer's itch was 6.8 episodes per 100 water exposure(More)
INTRODUCTION Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and pneumonia and can be prevented by Hib vaccine. We conducted a vaccine impact evaluation to support continued use of Hib vaccine in Morocco following introduction in 2007. METHODS Bacterial meningitis surveillance data from 2004 to 2009 were obtained from 11(More)
BACKGROUND Contact surveys and diaries have conventionally been used to measure contact networks in different settings for elucidating infectious disease transmission dynamics of respiratory infections. More recently, technological advances have permitted the use of wireless sensor devices, which can be worn by individuals interacting in a particular social(More)
PURPOSE To assess the immunization status of young children in a predominantly Hispanic region in and around downtown Los Angeles, and factors associated with complete immunization by age 24 months. METHODS The information was gathered in a two-stage cluster survey with probability proportionate to estimated size (PPS) sampling of 30 clusters at the first(More)