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To what extent are motor networks underlying rhythmic behaviors rigidly hard-wired versus fluid and dynamic entities? Do the members of motor networks change from moment-to-moment or from motor program episode-to-episode? These are questions that can only be addressed in systems where it is possible to monitor the spiking activity of networks of neurons(More)
A limited number of whole-cell assays allow monitoring of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity in a signaling pathway-specific manner. We present the general use of the bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology to quantitatively study the pharmacology and signaling properties of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily. RTK BRET-2(More)
Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes(More)
Texas-Red-asialoorosomucoid (ASOR) fluorescence-sorted early and late endocytic vesicles from rat liver were subjected to proteomic analysis with the aim of identifying functionally important proteins. Several Rab GTPases, including Rab1a, were found. The present study immunolocalized Rab1a to early and late endocytic vesicles and examined its potential(More)
In prepulse inhibition (PPI), startle responses to sudden, unexpected stimuli are markedly attenuated if immediately preceded by a weak stimulus of almost any modality. This experimental paradigm exposes a potent inhibitory process, present in nervous systems from invertebrates to humans, that is widely considered to play an important role in reducing(More)
—As continued scaling becomes increasingly difficult, 3D integration with through silicon vias (TSVs) has emerged as a viable solution to achieve higher bandwidth and power efficiency. Mechanical stress induced by thermal mismatch between TSVs and the silicon bulk arising during wafer fabrication and 3D integration, is a key constraint. In this work, we(More)
Prior studies have found that functional networks can rapidly add neurons as they build short-term memories, yet little is known about the principles underlying this process. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that short-term sensitization of Tritonia's swim motor program involves rapid expansion of the number of participating neurons. Tracking(More)
In prepulse inhibition (PPI), the startle response to a strong, unexpected stimulus is diminished if shortly preceded by the onset of a different stimulus. Because deficits in this inhibitory gating process are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and certain other psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying PPI are of significant interest. We(More)
Efforts to understand how the brain works require tools for observing circuits in action. Conventional electrophysiological methods can monitor no more than a few neurons at a time, providing a severely restricted perspective on network function. Optical recording with fast voltage-sensitive dyes (fVSDs) offers a way to overcome this limitation, by(More)