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High affinity monoamine transporters efficiently terminate neurotransmission through synaptic reuptake of released neurotransmitter. We recently cloned and characterized a novel low-affinity, high capacity plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) that is strongly expressed in the human brain and efficiently transports 5-HT and dopamine (DA). In efforts(More)
To what extent are motor networks underlying rhythmic behaviors rigidly hard-wired versus fluid and dynamic entities? Do the members of motor networks change from moment-to-moment or from motor program episode-to-episode? These are questions that can only be addressed in systems where it is possible to monitor the spiking activity of networks of neurons(More)
In prepulse inhibition (PPI), startle responses to sudden, unexpected stimuli are markedly attenuated if immediately preceded by a weak stimulus of almost any modality. This experimental paradigm exposes a potent inhibitory process, present in nervous systems from invertebrates to humans, that is widely considered to play an important role in reducing(More)
Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes(More)
Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association(More)
—As continued scaling becomes increasingly difficult, 3D integration with through silicon vias (TSVs) has emerged as a viable solution to achieve higher bandwidth and power efficiency. Mechanical stress induced by thermal mismatch between TSVs and the silicon bulk arising during wafer fabrication and 3D integration, is a key constraint. In this work, we(More)
We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age ≤50 years. We further investigated the association of rs10235235 with breast cancer risk in a(More)
Prior studies have found that functional networks can rapidly add neurons as they build short-term memories, yet little is known about the principles underlying this process. Using voltage-sensitive dye imaging, we found that short-term sensitization of Tritonia's swim motor program involves rapid expansion of the number of participating neurons. Tracking(More)
In prepulse inhibition (PPI), the startle response to a strong, unexpected stimulus is diminished if shortly preceded by the onset of a different stimulus. Because deficits in this inhibitory gating process are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and certain other psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying PPI are of significant interest. We(More)
Efforts to understand how the brain works require tools for observing circuits in action. Conventional electrophysiological methods can monitor no more than a few neurons at a time, providing a severely restricted perspective on network function. Optical recording with fast voltage-sensitive dyes (fVSDs) offers a way to overcome this limitation, by(More)