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It has been postulated that intracellular binding sites for platelet-activating factor (PAF) contribute to proinflammatory responses to PAF. Isolated nuclei from porcine cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (PCECs) produced PAF-molecular species in response to H(2)O(2). Using FACS analysis, we demonstrated the expression of PAF receptors on cell and(More)
Vascularization is essential for tissue development and in restoration of tissue integrity after an ischemic injury. In studies of vascularization, the focus has largely been placed on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), yet other factors may also orchestrate this process. Here we show that succinate accumulates in the hypoxic retina of rodents and,(More)
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a major complication of preterm birth. It encompasses a spectrum of pathologies that affect vision, from mild disease that resolves spontaneously to severe disease that causes retinal detachment and subsequent blindness. The pathologies are characterized by an arrest in normal retinal vascular development associated with(More)
OBJECTIVE Proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the development of retinal vasculopathies. However, the role of these factors and the mechanisms by which they elicit their effects in retina are not known. We investigated whether activated microglia during early stages of ischemic retinopathy produces excessive interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which elicits retinal(More)
In stroke and proliferative retinopathy, despite hypoxia driven angiogenesis, delayed revascularization of ischemic tissue aggravates the loss of neuronal function. What hinders vascular regrowth in the ischemic central nervous system remains largely unknown. Using the ischemic retina as a model of neurovascular interaction in the CNS, we provide evidence(More)
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), an ocular disease characterized by the onset of vascular abnormalities in the developing retina, is the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature neonates. ROP is a complex condition in which various factors participate at different stages of the disease leading to microvascular degeneration followed by(More)
IL-1 is a major proinflammatory cytokine which interacts with the IL-1 receptor I (IL-1RI) complex, composed of IL-1RI and IL-1R accessory protein subunits. Currently available strategies to counter pathological IL-1 signaling rely on a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist, which directly competes with IL-1 for its binding site. Presently, there are no(More)
OBJECTIVE Regulation of angiogenesis is critical for many diseases. Specifically, pathological retinal neovascularization, a major cause of blindness, is suppressed with dietary ω3-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3LCPUFAs) through antiangiogenic metabolites of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Cytochrome P450 epoxygenases (CYP2C8) also metabolize(More)
BACKGROUND Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a vision-threatening disease in premature infants. Serum adiponectin (APN) concentrations positively correlate with postnatal growth and gestational age, important risk factors for ROP development. Dietary ω-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LCPUFAs) suppress ROP and oxygen-induced retinopathy(More)
The failure of blood vessels to revascularize ischemic neural tissue represents a significant challenge for vascular biology. Examples include proliferative retinopathies (PRs) such as retinopathy of prematurity and proliferative diabetic retinopathy, which are the leading causes of blindness in children and working-age adults. PRs are characterized by(More)