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Taste receptors play a crucial role in detecting the presence of bitter compounds such as alkaloids, and help to prevent the ingestion of toxic food. In Drosophila, we show for the first time that several taste sensilla on the prothoracic legs detect bitter compounds both through the activation of specific taste neurons but also through inhibition of taste(More)
Antennal lobes of adult male and female Manduca sexta were compared in order to investigate the nature and extent of sexual dimorphism of the primary olfactory center of this lepidopteran species. Complete identification of the glomeruli led to the conclusion that all female glomeruli have homologous male counterparts. Thus, there is no sex-specific(More)
The spiking activity of receptor neurons was recorded extracellularly in the frog olfactory epithelium in response to four odourants applied at precisely controlled concentrations. A set of criteria was formulated to define the spikes in the response. Four variables - latency, duration, number of interspike intervals and frequency - were determined to(More)
Computer-assisted neuroanatomical methods have been used to demonstrate unique identities of the glomeruli of the antennal lobes (ALs) in males of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta. The glomerular neuropil consists of the male-specific macroglomerular complex, which comprises two closely apposed bulky subunits, and 64 +/- 1 "ordinary" glomeruli arrayed in a(More)
Most olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a single type of olfactory receptor that is differentially sensitive to a wide variety of odorant molecules. The diversity of possible odorant-receptor interactions raises challenging problems for the coding of complex mixtures of many odorants, which make up the vast majority of real world odors. Pure(More)
When monitoring neurons with a single extracellular electrode, it is common to record action potentials from different neurons. A recurring problem with such recordings is to identify which neuron is active. Sorting spikes into separate classes is possible if each neuron discharge spikes differing by their shapes and sizes. However, this approach is not(More)
The glomerular organization of the antennal lobes was analyzed in the moth Mamestra brassicae and comparatively in the butterfly Pieris brassicae. The invariance of the lobes in number, position, and size of the glomeruli was verified quantitatively in the moth for all the glomeruli in individuals of the same sex (67 in males, 68 in females) and for 56(More)
The spiking response of receptor neurons to various odorants has been analyzed at different concentrations. The interspike intervals were measured extracellularly before, during and after the stimulation from the olfactory epithelium of the frog Rana ridibunda. First, a quantitative method was developed to distinguish the spikes in the response from the(More)
Transduction in chemosensory cells begins with the association of ligand molecules to receptor proteins borne by the cell membrane. The receptor-ligand complexes formed act as signaling compounds that trigger a G-protein cascade. This receptor-ligand interaction, described here by a single-step or double-step reaction, depends on factors controlling the(More)
A biophysical model of receptor potential generation in the male moth olfactory receptor neuron is presented. It takes into account all pre-effector processes--the translocation of pheromone molecules from air to sensillum lymph, their deactivation and interaction with the receptors, and the G-protein and effector enzyme activation--and focuses on the main(More)