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Given that greater than 90% of the human genome is expressed, it is logical to assume that post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms must be the primary means of controlling the flow of information from mRNA to protein. This report describes a robust approach that includes in silico, in vitro and in cellulo experiments permitting an in-depth evaluation of(More)
The Y genes encode small noncoding RNAs whose functions remain elusive, whose numbers vary between species, and whose major property is to be bound by the Ro60 protein (or its ortholog in other species). To better understand the evolution of the Y gene family, we performed a homology search in 27 different genomes along with a structural search using Y RNA(More)
G-quadruplexes (G4s) are non-canonical structures involved in many important cellular processes. To date, the prediction of potential G-quadruplex structures (PG4s) has been based almost exclusively on the sequence of interest agreeing with the algorithm Gx-N-1-7-Gx-N1-7-Gx-N1-7-Gx (where x ≥ 3 and N = A, U, G or C). However, many sequences agreeing with(More)
BACKGROUND It has been observed that following viroid infection, there is an accumulation of viroid-derived siRNAs in infected plants. Some experimental results suggest that these small RNAs may be produced by the plant defense system to protect it from infection, indicating that viroids can elicit the RNA-silencing pathways. The objective of this study is(More)
The elucidation of the structures of viroids, noncoding infectious RNA species, is paramount to obtain an understanding of the various aspects of their life cycles (including replication, transport and pathogenesis). In general, the secondary structures of viroids have been predicted using computer software programs which have been shown to possess several(More)
Nucleotide sequences of a broad range of Peach Latent Mosaic Viroid (PLMVd) variants were determined. The variants were isolated from peach, pear, and almond tree samples collected in Tunisia. Sequence analysis confirmed the high variability of PLMVd, as no less than 119 new variants were identified. Variations included new polymorphic positions, insertions(More)
It is believed that peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) strands of both the plus and minus polarities fold into similar secondary and tertiary structures. In order to verify this hypothesis, the behavior of both strands in three biophysical assays was examined. PLMVd transcripts of plus and minus polarity were found to exhibit distinct electrophoretic(More)
The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) from Escherichia coli has previously been reported to specifically initiate transcription from viroid-derived RNA promoters in vitro. In order to gain insight into the molecular mechanism of RNA promoter recognition by this RNAP, we have used nucleic acid intercalators and RNA:protein footprinting experiments to study(More)
We have developed an in vitro transcriptional assay using Escherichia coli RNA polymerase to initiate the replication of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd). Regardless of the polarity of the PLMVd strand used as template, initiation in vitro occurred at the same hairpin structure. These initiation sites correspond to the 5'-ends of two small (280 nt)(More)
We have investigated the secondary structure of peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) in solution, and we present here the first description of the structure of a branched viroid in solution. Different PLMVd transcripts of plus polarity were produced by using the circularly permuted RNA method and the exploitation of RNA internal secondary structure to(More)