Jean-Pierre Louboutin

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Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs during human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. We studied how acute and ongoing exposure to human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope gp120 alters BBB structure and permeability. Intravenous Evans blue, given before stereotaxic gp120 injection into the caudate(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that infects the majority of patients with cystic fibrosis, initiates host inflammatory responses through interaction with airway epithelial cells. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pathogen pattern recognition receptors that play key roles in host innate immunity. In this study we(More)
HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity and oxidant injury are well documented, but consequent neuroinflammation is less understood. Rat caudate-putamens (CPs) were challenged with 100-500 ng HIV-1BaL gp120, with or without prior rSV40-delivered superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. CD11b-positive microglia were increased 1 day post-challenge; Iba-1- and(More)
Objectives—The polyneuropathy associated with a monoclonal IgM directed to the myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) is a specific entity with a putative causal link between the IgM and the neuropathy. The small benefit oVered by alkylating agents or plasma exchanges in these patients justifies the search for alternative treatments. Methods—A 12 month(More)
Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors have recently been shown to transduce cells throughout the central nervous system of nonhuman primates when injected into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a finding which could lead to a minimally invasive approach to treat genetic and acquired diseases affecting the entire CNS. We characterized the(More)
We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in loss of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) from the substantia nigra (SN) in neuroAIDS. The frequency of Parkinson-like symptomatology, and DN loss, in neuroAIDS is often attributed to nonspecific DN fragility to oxidative stress. Cultured DN are more sensitive to ROS than non-dopaminergic neurons (RN): DN(More)
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an increasingly common, progressive disease characterized by neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function. HIV-1 gene products, particularly gp120 and Tat elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to oxidant injury and cause neuron apoptosis. Understanding of, and developing therapies for,(More)
We administered recombinant SV40-derived viral vectors (rSV40s) intravenously to mice with or without prior intraperitoneal injection of mannitol to deliver transgenes to the central nervous system (CNS). We detected transgene-expressing cells (mainly neurons) most prominently in the cortex and spinal cord; prior intraperitoneal mannitol injection increased(More)
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP) injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120), an experimental model of ongoing(More)
Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their(More)