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Of the many brain events evoked by a visual stimulus, which are specifically associated with conscious perception, and which merely reflect non-conscious processing? Several recent neuroimaging studies have contrasted conscious and non-conscious visual processing, but their results appear inconsistent. Some support a correlation of conscious perception with(More)
Recent experimental studies and theoretical models have begun to address the challenge of establishing a causal link between subjective conscious experience and measurable neuronal activity. The present review focuses on the well-delimited issue of how an external or internal piece of information goes beyond nonconscious processing and gains access to(More)
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels from the Cys-loop family mediate fast chemo-electrical transduction, but the mechanisms of ion permeation and gating of these membrane proteins remain elusive. Here we present the X-ray structure at 2.9 A resolution of the bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel homologue (GLIC) at pH 4.6 in(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by dopaminergic (DA) neurons have long been considered as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of several neuropsychiatric diseases, including nicotine and cocaine addiction or Parkinson's disease. However, DA neurons express mRNAs coding for most, if not all, neuronal nAChR subunits, and the(More)
Spontaneous activity patterns in the developing retina appear important for the functional organization of the visual system. We show here that an absence of early retinal waves in mice lacking the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is associated with both gain and loss of functional organization in the dorsal lateral geniculate(More)
The alpha6 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is expressed at very high levels in dopaminergic (DA) neurons. However, because of the lack of pharmacological tools selective for alpha6-containing nAChRs, the role of this subunit in the etiology of nicotine addiction remains unknown. To provide new tools to investigate this issue, we(More)
  • Nicolas Bocquet, Lia Prado de Carvalho, Jean Cartaud, Jacques Neyton, Chantal Le Poupon, Antoine Taly +3 others
  • 2007
Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) mediate excitatory and inhibitory transmission in the nervous system. Among them, the pentameric or 'Cys-loop' receptors (pLGICs) compose a family that until recently was found in only eukaryotes. Yet a recent genome search identified putative homologues of these proteins in several bacterial species. Here we report the(More)
We present a hypothetical neurocomputational model that combines a set of neural circuits at the molecular, cellular, and system levels and accounts for several neurobiological and behavioral processes leading to nicotine addiction. We propose that combining changes in the nicotinic receptor response, expressed by mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, with(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are transmembrane oligomeric proteins that mediate interconversions between open and closed channel states under the control of neurotransmitters. Fast in vitro chemical kinetics and in vivo electrophysiological recordings are consistent with the following multi-step scheme. Upon binding of agonists, receptor molecules in(More)
In the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, we analyze the contribution of mutations E237A and V251T, together with the proline insertion P236', in the conversion of the charge selectivity from cationic to anionic. We show that the triple mutant exhibits spontaneous openings displaying anionic selectivity. Furthermore, at position 251, hydrophilic or(More)