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Neural stem cells cultured with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)/epidermal growth factor (EGF) generate clonal expansions called neurospheres (NS), which are widely used for therapy in animal models. However, their cellular composition is still poorly defined. Here, we report that NS derived from several embryonic and adult central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Glioblastoma multiform (GBM) are devastating brain tumors containing a fraction of multipotent stem-like cells which are highly tumorigenic. These cells are resistant to treatments and are likely to be responsible for tumor recurrence. One approach to eliminate GBM stem-like cells would be to force their terminal differentiation. During development, neurons(More)
Glioblastoma multiforms (GBMs) are highly vascularized brain tumors containing a subpopulation of multipotent cancer stem cells. These cells closely interact with endothelial cells in neurovascular niches. In this study, we have uncovered a close link between the Notch1 pathway and the tumoral vascularization process of GBM stem cells. We observed that(More)
Microarray technology provides a unique opportunity to examine gene expression patterns in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We performed a meta-analysis of 38 original studies reporting on the transcriptome of hESCs. We determined that 1,076 genes were found to be overexpressed in hESCs by at least three studies when compared to differentiated cell(More)
Neurosphere cultures provide a useful model to study neural stem/progenitor cells (NSC/NPCs). The degree to which neurospheres (NS) retain their regional identity in vitro has, however, been questioned. Here, NS obtained from mouse embryonic cortex, striatum or spinal cord were compared after differentiation. Neurons from cortical NS formed well ordered(More)
In humans and rodents the adult spinal cord harbors neural stem cells located around the central canal. Their identity, precise location, and specific signaling are still ill-defined and controversial. We report here on a detailed analysis of this niche. Using microdissection and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)(More)
Genomic imprinting is a developmental mechanism that mediates parent-of-origin-specific expression in a subset of genes. How the tissue specificity of imprinted gene expression is controlled remains poorly understood. As a model to address this question, we studied Grb10, a gene that displays brain-specific expression from the paternal chromosome. Here, we(More)
In the cerebellum of newborn S100B-EGFP mice, we had previously noted the presence of a large population of S100B-expressing cells, which we assumed to be immature Bergmann glial cells. In the present study, we have drawn on this observation to establish the precise spatio-temporal pattern of S100B gene expression in the embryonic cerebellum. From E12.5(More)
Our group recently provided evidence for the presence of neural stem cells and/or progenitor cells in the adult human spinal cord. In this chapter, we review materials and methods to harvest high-quality samples of thoracolumbar, lumbar, and sacral adult human spinal cord from brain-dead patients who had agreed to donate their bodies to science for(More)
The dystrophin gene (Monaco and Kunkel 1988; Worton 1988) is expressed in muscular tissues, cerebellum, and brain as a 14-kb mRNA that encodes an approximately 420-kDa protein, dystrophin, whose defect is responsible for Duchenne and Becket muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD). In addition, a shorter, recently characterized transcript is observed in(More)