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Recent studies suggest that thousands of genes may contribute to breast cancer pathophysiologies when deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events. Here, we describe a model "system" to appraise the functional contributions of these genes to breast cancer subsets. In general, the recurrent genomic and transcriptional characteristics of 51 breast cancer cell(More)
Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad(More)
Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by stably arresting the proliferation of damaged cells. Paradoxically, senescent cells also secrete factors that alter tissue microenvironments. The pathways regulating this secretion are unknown. We show that damaged human cells develop persistent chromatin lesions bearing hallmarks of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs),(More)
Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests cell proliferation in response to oncogenic stimuli. Human cells develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which increases the secretion of cytokines and other factors that alter the behavior of neighboring cells. We show here that "senescent" mouse fibroblasts, which arrested growth after repeated(More)
Cellular senescence, which is associated with aging, is a process by which cells enter a state of permanent cell cycle arrest, therefore constituting a potent tumor suppressive mechanism. Recent studies show that, despite the beneficial effects of cellular senescence, senescent cells can also exert harmful effects on the tissue microenvironment. The most(More)
Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests proliferation in response to potentially oncogenic stress. Senescent cells also secrete inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, which promote age-associated inflammation and pathology. HMGB1 (high mobility group box 1) modulates gene expression in the nucleus, but certain immune cells secrete HMGB1 as an extracellular(More)
Id proteins are inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. We have shown that ectopic expression of Id-1 in murine mammary epithelial cells resulted in loss of differentiation and gain of invasive and proliferative abilities. Moreover, Id-1 was highly expressed in(More)
Cigarette smoke and smokeless tobacco extracts contain multiple carcinogenic compounds, but little is known about the mechanisms by which tumors develop and progress upon chronic exposure to carcinogens such as those present in tobacco products. Here, we examine the effects of smokeless tobacco extracts on human oral fibroblasts. We show that smokeless(More)
ERBB2 amplification and overexpression in human breast cancer is associated with poor outcome. However, over-expression of ERBB2 alone is an early event in breast tumorigenesis, suggesting secondary events are required for progression. Here we demonstrate that the Ets transcription factor, ESX, induces an invasive phenotype in breast epithelial cells(More)
Id proteins are inhibitors of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. We have shown that ectopic expression of Id-1 in murine mammary epithelial cells resulted in loss of differentiation and gain of invasive and prolifer-ative abilities. Moreover, Id-1 was highly expressed in(More)
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