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BACKGROUND Fingolimod (FTY720), a sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor modulator that prevents lymphocyte egress from lymph nodes, showed clinical efficacy and improvement on imaging in a phase 2 study involving patients with multiple sclerosis. METHODS In this 12-month, double-blind, double-dummy study, we randomly assigned 1292 patients with(More)
Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common occurrence and is generally fairly circumscribed. The prevalence of the cognitive deficits usually encountered could vary with the clinical course of the disease. To investigate whether the presence of cognitive impairment may occur in the very early stage of MS, we assessed the(More)
BACKGROUND The course and prognosis of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis have not been well described. METHODS We used data from 13 adult neurology departments affiliated with the European Database for Multiple Sclerosis (EDMUS) network to identify a cohort of 394 patients who had multiple sclerosis with an onset at 16 years of age or younger and a(More)
Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that functional cortical changes seen in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) can have an adaptive role to limit the clinical impact of tissue injury. To determine whether cortical reorganization occurs during high cognitive processes at the earliest stage(More)
We sought to determine the influence of tissue damage and the potential impact of cortical reorganization on the performance to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments using PASAT as(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if callosal atrophy and interhemispheric dysfunction can be detected in the early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate their progression in relation to the disability and evolution of lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging during a 5-year period. METHODS We compared 30 patients who had(More)
The paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) is routinely used to evaluate the cognitive part of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) score, the new reference index of patient disability. PASAT is sensitive to subtle cognitive impairment related to MS, although the cognitive components of this test still remain unclear. In order to better(More)
Despite an extensive diagnostic workup, some cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) remain of unknown etiology and have been referred to as "idiopathic" by the Transverse Myelitis Consortium group. In a retrospective study of 288 patients with ATM, 45 cases (15.6%) met the criteria for idiopathic ATM. The patients formed a relatively homogeneous group in(More)
IMPORTANCE The safety and efficacy of switching from natalizumab to fingolimod have not yet been evaluated in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) to our knowledge. OBJECTIVE To collect data from patients with MS switching from natalizumab to fingolimod. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Enquête Nationale sur l'Introduction du(More)