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BACKGROUND The course and prognosis of childhood-onset multiple sclerosis have not been well described. METHODS We used data from 13 adult neurology departments affiliated with the European Database for Multiple Sclerosis (EDMUS) network to identify a cohort of 394 patients who had multiple sclerosis with an onset at 16 years of age or younger and a(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially(More)
Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common occurrence and is generally fairly circumscribed. The prevalence of the cognitive deficits usually encountered could vary with the clinical course of the disease. To investigate whether the presence of cognitive impairment may occur in the very early stage of MS, we assessed the(More)
Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that functional cortical changes seen in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) can have an adaptive role to limit the clinical impact of tissue injury. To determine whether cortical reorganization occurs during high cognitive processes at the earliest stage(More)
We sought to determine the influence of tissue damage and the potential impact of cortical reorganization on the performance to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments using PASAT as(More)
The paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) is routinely used to evaluate the cognitive part of the multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFC) score, the new reference index of patient disability. PASAT is sensitive to subtle cognitive impairment related to MS, although the cognitive components of this test still remain unclear. In order to better(More)
BACKGROUND In a 12-month phase 3 study in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), TRANSFORMS, fingolimod showed greater efficacy on relapse rates and MRI outcomes compared with interferon beta-1a. We had two aims in our extension: to compare year 2 with year 1 in the switched patients to assess the effect of a change from interferon(More)
Working memory impairment is frequently observed in patients with early multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI and functional MRI studies have shown that working memory impairment is mostly due to diffuse white matter (WM) damage affecting the connectivity between distant cortical areas. However, working memory deficits in early MS patients can be either completely(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if callosal atrophy and interhemispheric dysfunction can be detected in the early stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate their progression in relation to the disability and evolution of lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging during a 5-year period. METHODS We compared 30 patients who had(More)
fMRI and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to study effective connectivity inside the working memory network in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis (MS), while performing paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), a sensitive task to reveal subtle cognitive impairments related to working memory and information speed processing.(More)