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Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation leads to oxidizing events that alter atomic structure through direct interactions of radiation with target macromolecules or via products of water radiolysis. Further, the oxidative damage may spread from the targeted to neighboring, non-targeted bystander cells through redox-modulated intercellular communication(More)
We investigated the roles of gap junction communication and oxidative stress in modulating potentially lethal damage repair in human fibroblast cultures exposed to doses of α particles or γ rays that targeted all cells in the cultures. As expected, α particles were more effective than γ rays at inducing cell killing; further, holding γ-irradiated cells in(More)
Monte Carlo simulations of the radiolysis of neutral liquid water and 0.4 M H(2)SO(4) aqueous solutions at ambient temperature are used to calculate the variations of the primary radical and molecular yields (at 10(-6)s) as a function of linear energy transfer (LET) in the range approximately 0.3 to 6.5 keV/micrometer. The early energy deposition is(More)
In multicellular organisms, intercellular communication is essential for homeostatic functions and has a major role in tissue responses to stress. Here, we describe the effects of expression of different connexins, which form gap junction channels with different permeabilities, on the responses of human cells to ionizing radiation. Exposure of confluent(More)
Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects, commonly observed in cell populations exposed to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiations, are initiated by damage to a cellular molecule which then gives rise to a toxic signal exported to neighboring cells not directly hit by radiation. A major goal in studies of this phenomenon is the identification of(More)
Since the invention of cancer radiotherapy, its primary goal has been to maximize lethal radiation doses to the tumor volume while keeping the dose to surrounding healthy tissues at zero. Sadly, conventional radiation sources (γ or X rays, electrons) used for decades, including multiple or modulated beams, inevitably deposit the majority of their dose in(More)
This paper examines, from a chemical perspective, the hypothesis of the existence of protective enzymes whose role would be to regulate the high local nitric oxide (NO) concentrations that are released in NO-generating cells in situations of response to oxidative stress. These enzymes should play the role, with respect to NO, either of a reductase or of a(More)
Monte Carlo simulations of electron tracks in liquid water are performed to calculate the energy dependence of the electron penetration range at initial electron energies between 0.2 eV and 150 keV, including the subexcitation electron region (<7.3 eV). Our calculated electron penetration distances are compared with available experimental data and earlier(More)
Estrogen metabolism is altered in most, if not all, breast cancer tumors. These alterations primarily lead to the formation of the catechol estrogen metabolites, 2- and 4-hydroxyestrogens, which can generate superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(*)(-)) through the redox cycling of semiquinone/quinone derivatives. In breast cancer cells, the activity of nitric(More)
Oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL) are believed to play a central role in the events that initiate atherosclerosis. Antioxidants have been shown to decrease the oxidation of LDL, leading to the diminution of atherosclerosis. Since it is well-known that decreased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are linked to the development of atherosclerosis,(More)