Jean-Paul Chauvin

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BACKGROUND Embryonic cleavage leads to the formation of an epithelial layer during development. In Drosophila, the process is specialized and called cellularization. The trafficking pathways that underlie this process and that are responsible for the mobilization of membrane pools, however, remain poorly understood. RESULTS We provide functional evidence(More)
Cilia and flagella are evolutionary conserved organelles that generate fluid movement and locomotion, and play roles in chemosensation, mechanosensation and intracellular signalling. In complex organisms, cilia are highly diversified, which allows them to perform various functions; however, they retain a 9+0 or 9+2 microtubules structure connected to a(More)
Morphogenesis of epithelial tissues relies on the precise developmental control of cell polarity and architecture. In the early Drosophila embryo, the primary epithelium forms during cellularisation, following a tightly controlled genetic programme where specific sets of genes are upregulated. Some of them, for example, control membrane invagination between(More)
Recent studies suggest that rafts are involved in numerous cell functions, including membrane traffic and signaling. Here we demonstrate, using a polyoxyethylene ether Brij 98, that detergent-insoluble microdomains possessing the expected biochemical characteristics of rafts are present in the cell membrane at 37 degrees C. After extraction, these(More)
Prion infection relies on a continuous chain of PrP(c)-expressing tissues to spread from peripheral sites to the central nervous system (CNS). Direct neuroinvasion via peripheral nerves has long been considered likely. However, the speed of axonal flow is incompatible with the lengthy delay prior to the detection of PrP(Sc) in the brain. We hypothesized(More)
Primary cilia originate from the centrosome and play essential roles in several cellular, developmental, and pathological processes, but the underlying mechanisms of ciliogenesis are not fully understood. Given the involvement of the adaptor protein Hook2 in centrosomal homeostasis and protein transport to pericentrosomal aggresomes, we explored its role in(More)
Astrocytes play an active role in the central nervous system and are critically involved in astrogliosis, a homotypic response of these cells to disease, injury, and associated neuroinflammation. Among the numerous molecules involved in these processes are the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, secreted or(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are unique glia found only in the olfactory system. They retain exceptional plasticity and support olfactory neurogenesis and retargeting across the PNS:CNS boundary in the olfactory system. OECs have been shown to improve functional outcome when transplanted into rodents with spinal cord injury. The growth-promoting(More)
We addressed the role of EFA6, exchange factor for ARF6, during the development of epithelial cell polarity in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. EFA6 is located primarily at the apical pole of polarized cells, including the plasma membrane. After calcium-triggered E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion, EFA6 is recruited to a Triton X-100-insoluble fraction and(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases that cleave matrix, soluble and membrane-bound proteins and are regulated by their endogenous inhibitors the tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). Nothing is known about MMP/TIMP trafficking and secretion in neuronal cells. We focussed our attention on the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, and their inhibitor(More)