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The molecular mechanisms that lead to the cognitive defects characteristic of Down syndrome (DS), the most frequent cause of mental retardation, have remained elusive. Here we use a transgenic DS mouse model (152F7 line) to show that DYRK1A gene dosage imbalance deregulates chromosomal clusters of genes located near neuron-restrictive silencer factor(More)
In several neurological disorders including hyperhomocysteinemia, homocysteine (Hcy) accumulates in the brain, and acts as a potent neurotoxin. However, the molecular mechanisms induced by increased levels of Hcy in brain are not well understood. Here we show an activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2) and the downstream(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency leads to severe hyperhomocysteinemia, which confers diverse clinical manifestations, notably fatty liver. Recently, abnormal lipid metabolism has been demonstrated in CBS-deficient mice, a murine model of severe hyperhomocysteinemia. To gain further insights into effects of CBS deficiency on(More)
Trisomy 21 or Down syndrome is a chromosomal disorder resulting from the presence of all or part of an extra Chromosome 21. It is a common birth defect, the most frequent and most recognizable form of mental retardation, appearing in about 1 of every 700 newborns. Although the syndrome had been described thousands of years before, it was named after John(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency causes severe hyperhomocysteinemia, which confers diverse clinical manifestations, notably liver disease. To investigate this aspect of hyperhomocysteinemia, we performed a thorough investigation of liver pathology in CBS-deficient mice, a murine model of severe hyperhomocysteinemia. METHODS(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia leads to diverse clinical manifestations, notably liver disease. The pathogenicity of homocysteine is believed to be due to its ability to produce oxidative stress. Paraoxonase-1 (Pon1), a phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme (XME) synthesized by liver with anti-oxidative properties within the circulating system is down regulated in(More)
The gene tprd, which contains three tetratricopeptide domains, has been recently localized in the Down syndrome (DS) chromosomal region 1. We have cloned a cDNA encoding part of the murine ortholog of tprd and used it to characterize the expression pattern of this gene during development and at the adult stage. At E8.5 the expression is uniform. In the(More)
Nonchimeric polytransgenic 152F7 mice encompassing four human chromosome 21 genes (DSCR3, DSCR5, TTC3, and DYRK1A) within the Down syndrome critical region present with learning and memory impairment. However, no abnormalities were shown by in vitro electrophysiological or neuroanatomical findings in hippocampus of 152F7 mice. To search for molecular(More)
Hepatic steatosis is a clinical feature observed in severe hyperhomocysteinemic patients. In mice, cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency, the most common cause of severe hyperhomocysteinemia, is also associated with steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation. Proinflammatory cytokines usually induce apoptosis. However, hyperhomocysteinemia does not(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with brain disease. However, biological actions linking hyperhomocysteinemia to neuronal abnormalities are not well understood. We recently found a relationship between Dyrk1A protein expression, a serine/threonine kinase that might be responsible for cognitive functions in Down’s syndrome, and hepatic(More)