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The peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) might be involved in certain pathophysiological events, such as anxiety, by stimulating the production of neuroactive steroids in the brain. A recent electrophysiological study has revealed an interaction between PK11195, a PBR ligand and the anxiolytic compound etifoxine at micromolar concentrations. The(More)
Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic(More)
Change in the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptors attributable to alterations in receptor subunit composition is one of main molecular mechanisms with those affecting the glutamatergic system which accompany prolonged alcohol (ethanol) intake. These changes explain in part the central nervous system hyperexcitability consequently to(More)
Anxiety disorders are often associated with autonomic symptoms, including heart palpitations, sweating, elevation of body temperature and alterations of gastrointestinal motility. Some of the alterations observed in animals exposed to stress are analogous to changes in a number of physiological and endocrine parameters observed in anxious patients. With the(More)
For biotherapeutic agents, there is a lack of information on dose-response relationships and mechanism of action. The present study was designed to address these issues for Saccharomyces boulardii using the rat model of castor oil-induced diarrhea. A single dose of Saccharomyces boulardii at 12 x 10(10) CFU/kg of viable cells given 1 hr before castor oil(More)
The biotherapeutic agent Saccharomyces boulardii has been shown to inhibit castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats in a dose-response fashion, and one of the suggested mechanisms of action included involvement of the nitric oxide pathway. The present study was designed to address this mechanism of action by firstly measuring the effects of S. boulardii on the(More)
In order to specify the nature of interactions between the analgesic compound nefopam and the glutamatergic system, we examined the effects of nefopam on binding of specific ligands on the three main subtypes ionotropic glutamate receptors: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA), or quisqualic acid (QA)(More)
The present study explored the role of the histaminergic system in nefopam analgesia based on the structural relationship between nefopam and diphenhydramine. In vitro binding assays revealed that nefopam possesses moderate affinity for histamine H1 and H2 receptor subtypes, with IC50 of 0.8 and 6.9 microM, respectively, but no affinity for histamine H(3)(More)
The non-opiate analgesic nefopam has been shown to inhibit monoamines uptake, but little is known about receptor subtypes effectively involved in its analgesic effect. In vitro binding assays yielded the following measures of affinity (IC(50)): serotonergic 5-HT(2C) (1.4 microM), 5-HT(2A) (5.1 microM), 5-HT(3) (22.3 microM), 5-HT(1B) (41.7 microM), 5-HT(1A)(More)
Dysfunction of GABAergic transmission related to abnormal expression of GABA(A) receptor subunits in specific brain regions underlies some pathological anxiety states. Besides involvement of the benzodiazepine recognition site of GABA(A) receptor in the expression of anxiety-like behaviour, the roles of the β(2)/β(3) subunits are not well characterized. To(More)