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Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that(More)
Exoribonucleases are important enzymes for the turnover of cellular RNA species. We have isolated the first mammalian cDNA from mouse demonstrated to encode a 5'-3' exoribonuclease. The structural conservation of the predicted protein and complementation data in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest a role in cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and pre-rRNA processing(More)
BACKGROUND Homologous recombination is of eminent importance both in germ cells, to generate genetic diversity during meiosis, and in somatic cells, to safeguard DNA from genotoxic damage. The genetically well-defined RAD52 pathway is required for these processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes similar to those in the RAD52 group have been(More)
rad54 mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are extremely X-ray sensitive and have decreased mitotic recombination frequencies because of a defect in double-strand break repair. A RAD54 homolog was disrupted in the chicken B cell line DT40, which undergoes immunoglobulin gene conversion and exhibits unusually high ratios of targeted to random(More)
A large number of cDNA inserts were sequenced from a high-quality library of chicken bursal lymphocyte cDNAs. Comparisons to public gene databases indicate that the cDNA collection represents more than 2,000 new, full-length transcripts. This resource defines the structure and the coding potential of a large fraction of B-cell specific and housekeeping(More)
Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response(More)
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a DNA polymerase cofactor and regulator of replication-linked functions. Upon DNA damage, yeast and vertebrate PCNA is modified at the conserved lysine K164 by ubiquitin, which mediates error-prone replication across lesions via translesion polymerases. We investigated the role of PCNA ubiquitination in variants(More)
Base excision repair (BER) plays an essential role in protecting cells from mutagenic base damage caused by oxidative stress, hydrolysis, and environmental factors. POLQ is a DNA polymerase, which appears to be involved in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) past base damage. We disrupted POLQ, and its homologs HEL308 and POLN in chicken DT40 cells, and also(More)
Depending on the species and the lymphoid organ, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) expression triggers diversification of the rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes by pseudo V (psiV) gene- templated gene conversion or somatic hypermutation. To investigate how AID can alternatively induce recombination or hypermutation, psiV gene deletions were(More)
Pax5 is indispensable for the commitment of early lymphoid progenitors to the B cell lineage as well as for the development of B cells. To better understand the functional importance of Pax5 at the later stages of B cell differentiation, we established a Pax5-deficient DT40 B cell line. The Pax5(-/-) cells exhibited slower growth, decreased surface IgM(More)