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Photosynthetic organisms have developed multiple protective mechanisms to survive under high-light conditions. In plants, one of these mechanisms is the thermal dissipation of excitation energy in the membrane-bound chlorophyll antenna of photosystem II. The question of whether or not cyanobacteria, the progenitor of the chloroplast, have an equivalent(More)
The water and solute transporting properties of the epidermis have been proposed to be important determinants of skin moisture content and barrier properties. The water/small solute-transporting protein aquaporin-3 (AQP3) was found by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy to be expressed at the plasma membrane of epidermal keratinocytes in(More)
BACKGROUND Mechanoreceptors contain compliant elements, termed "gating springs," that transfer macroscopic stimuli impinging on the cells into microscopic stimuli that open the mechanosensitive channels. Evidence for gating springs comes from mechanical experiments; they have not been identified molecularly or ultrastructurally. RESULTS We show that the(More)
CHIP28 is a major water transporting protein in erythrocytes and plasma membranes in kidney proximal tubule and thin descending limb of Henle. Chinese hamster ovary cells were stably transfected with the coding sequence of cloned rat kidney CHIP28k using expression vectors containing cytomegalovirus or Rous sarcoma virus promoters. Clonal cell populations(More)
One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to(More)
The influenza virus (IFV) acquires its envelope by budding from host cell plasma membranes. Using quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, we determined the lipidomes of the host Madin-Darby canine kidney cell, its apical membrane, and the IFV budding from it. We found the apical membrane to be enriched in sphingolipids (SPs) and cholesterol, whereas(More)
In this paper we address the difficult problem of parameter-finding in image segmentation. We replace a tedious manual process that is often based on guess-work and luck by a principled approach that systematically explores the parameter space. Our core idea is the following two-stage technique: We start with a sparse sampling of the parameter space and(More)
In this study we analyzed the expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in mammalian skeletal muscle. Immunohistochemical experiments revealed that affinity-purified AQP4 antibodies stained selectively the sarcolemma of fast-twitch fibers. By immunogold electron microscopy, little or no intracellular labeling was detected. Western blot analysis showed the presence(More)
The thermophilic cyanobacterium, Thermosynechococcus elongatus, has been grown in the presence of Sr2+ instead of Ca2+ with the aim of biosynthetically replacing the Ca2+ of the oxygen-evolving enzyme with Sr2+. Not only were the cells able to grow normally with Sr2+, they actively accumulated the ion to levels higher than those of Ca2+ in the normal(More)
Previous results showed that mRNA encoding a putative aquaporin (AQP) (GenBank accession number AF218314) is present in the tracheolar cells associated with female Aedes aegypti Malpighian tubules. In this study, immunohistochemistry detected the protein, AeaAQP, also in tracheolar cells, suggesting its involvement in water movement in the respiratory(More)