Learn More
BACKGROUND Mechanoreceptors contain compliant elements, termed "gating springs," that transfer macroscopic stimuli impinging on the cells into microscopic stimuli that open the mechanosensitive channels. Evidence for gating springs comes from mechanical experiments; they have not been identified molecularly or ultrastructurally. RESULTS We show that the(More)
In this paper we address the difficult problem of parameter-finding in image segmentation. We replace a tedious manual process that is often based on guess-work and luck by a principled approach that systematically explores the parameter space. Our core idea is the following two-stage technique: We start with a sparse sampling of the parameter space and(More)
Pathological studies on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suggest that PD pathology progresses from the enteric nervous system (ENS) and the olfactory bulb into the central nervous system. We have previously shown that environmental toxins acting locally on the ENS mimic this PD-like pathology progression pattern in mice. Here, we show for the first time(More)
The influenza virus (IFV) acquires its envelope by budding from host cell plasma membranes. Using quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry, we determined the lipidomes of the host Madin-Darby canine kidney cell, its apical membrane, and the IFV budding from it. We found the apical membrane to be enriched in sphingolipids (SPs) and cholesterol, whereas(More)
Membrane curvature sensors have diverse structures and chemistries, suggesting that they might have the intrinsic capacity to discriminate between different types of vesicles in cells. In this paper, we compare the in vitro and in vivo membrane-binding properties of two curvature sensors that form very different amphipathic helices: the amphipathic(More)
One of the key questions in biology is how the metabolism of a cell responds to changes in the environment. In budding yeast, starvation causes a drop in intracellular pH, but the functional role of this pH change is not well understood. Here, we show that the enzyme glutamine synthetase (Gln1) forms filaments at low pH and that filament formation leads to(More)
The water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the molecular counterpart of the ultrasmall pore responsible for transcellular water permeability during peritoneal dialysis (PD). This water permeability accounts for up to 50% of ultrafiltration (UF) during a hypertonic dwell, and its loss can be a major clinical problem for PD patients. By analogy with the lung,(More)
To test the involvement of the water channel aquaporin (AQP)-4 in gastric acid physiology, the human gastric cell line (HGT)-1 was stably transfected with rat AQP4. AQP4 was immunolocalized to the basolateral membrane of transfected HGT-1 cells, like in native parietal cells. Expression of AQP4 in transfected cells increased the osmotic water permeability(More)
Mutations in PKD1 are associated with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Studies in mouse models suggest that the vasopressin (AVP) V2 receptor (V2R) pathway is involved in renal cyst progression, but potential changes before cystogenesis are unknown. This study used a noncystic mouse model to investigate the effect of Pkd1 haploinsufficiency on(More)
Water is essential for life on Earth. In its absence, however, some organisms can interrupt their life cycle and temporarily enter an ametabolic state, known as anhydrobiosis [1]. It is assumed that sugars (in particular trehalose) are instrumental for survival under anhydrobiotic conditions [2]. However, the role of trehalose remained obscure because the(More)