Jean-Marc Schwarz

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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent liver disease worldwide, and is commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Secular trends in the prevalence of these diseases may be associated with the increased fructose consumption observed in the Western diet. NAFLD is characterized by two steps of liver injury: intrahepatic lipid(More)
High-fructose diet stimulates hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and causes hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in rodents. Fructose-induced insulin resistance may be secondary to alterations of lipid metabolism. In contrast, fish oil supplementation decreases triglycerides and may improve insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Until recently, the importance of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in contributing to hypertriglyceridemia was difficult to assess because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the extent of the contribution by DNL to different conditions associated(More)
CONTEXT Leptin deficiency is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in animals and humans with lipoatrophy; leptin replacement ameliorates these abnormalities. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of leptin therapy in lipoatrophic HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and hypoleptinemia. DESIGN This was a(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The effects of dietary sugar on risk factors and the processes associated with metabolic disease remain a controversial topic, with recent reviews of the available evidence arriving at widely discrepant conclusions. RECENT FINDINGS There are many recently published epidemiological studies that provide evidence that sugar consumption is(More)
Altered gut and pancreatic hormone secretion may bolster resolution of insulin resistance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but the independent effects of weight loss and hormonal secretion on peripheral glucose disposal are unknown. Two groups of nondiabetic morbidly obese patients were studied: RYGB followed by standardized caloric restriction (RYGB,(More)
CONTEXT Consumption of high-fructose diets promotes hepatic fatty acid synthesis (de novo lipogenesis [DNL]) and an atherogenic lipid profile. It is unclear whether these effects occur independent of positive energy balance and weight gain. OBJECTIVES We compared the effects of a high-fructose, (25% of energy content) weight-maintaining diet to those of(More)
BACKGROUND Therapy with HIV protease inhibitors (PI) has been shown to worsen glucose and lipid metabolism, but whether these changes are caused by direct drug effects, changes in disease status, or body composition is unclear. Therefore, we tested the effects of the PI combination lopinavir and ritonavir on glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-negative(More)
We evaluated the hypothesis that coordinated adjustments in absolute rates of gluconeogenesis (GNG(ab)) and hepatic glycogenolysis (Gly) would maintain euglycemia and match glucose production (GP) to peripheral utilization during rest and exercise. Specifically, we evaluated the extent to which gradations in exercise power output would affect the(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in the multiple mechanisms that regulate glucose metabolism after gastric bypass (RYGB) are still being unveiled. The objective of this study was to compare the changes of glucose and pancreatic hormones [C-peptide, glucagon, and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)] during a meal tolerance test (MTT) and steady-state insulin and free fatty acid(More)