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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent liver disease worldwide, and is commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Secular trends in the prevalence of these diseases may be associated with the increased fructose consumption observed in the Western diet. NAFLD is characterized by two steps of liver injury: intrahepatic lipid(More)
CONTEXT Leptin deficiency is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in animals and humans with lipoatrophy; leptin replacement ameliorates these abnormalities. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of leptin therapy in lipoatrophic HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and hypoleptinemia. DESIGN This was a(More)
H ypoxia in obese adipose tissue (AT) plays an important role in the development of whole-body insulin resistance by inducing local inflammation and the release of proinflammatory cyto-kines (1). Yet, living at high altitude is associated with a lower prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes compared with living at low altitude (2).(More)
Bile composition and secretion were studied in tow elasmobranch species, Squalus acanthias (spiny dogfish shark) and Raja erinacea (small skate), after ligation of the common duct and insertion of cannulas into the gallbladder lumen. Fish were then allowed to swim freely in large pools and bile was collected in balloons attached to the externalized(More)
BACKGROUND Inadequate energy intake induces changes in endogenous glucose production (GP) to preserve muscle mass. Whether addition provision of dietary protein modulates GP response to energy deficit is unclear. The objective was to determine whether exercise-induced energy deficit effects on glucose metabolism are mitigated by increased dietary protein.(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Until recently, the importance of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in contributing to hypertriglyceridemia was difficult to assess because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the extent of the contribution by DNL to different conditions associated(More)
High-fructose diet stimulates hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and causes hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance in rodents. Fructose-induced insulin resistance may be secondary to alterations of lipid metabolism. In contrast, fish oil supplementation decreases triglycerides and may improve insulin resistance. Therefore, we studied the effect of(More)
BACKGROUND Therapy with HIV protease inhibitors (PI) causes insulin resistance even in the absence of HIV infection, hyperlipidemia or changes in body composition. The mechanism of the effects on insulin action is unknown. In vitro studies suggest that PI selectively and rapidly inhibit the activity of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT-4. We(More)
BACKGROUND Therapy with HIV protease inhibitors (PI) has been shown to worsen glucose and lipid metabolism, but whether these changes are caused by direct drug effects, changes in disease status, or body composition is unclear. Therefore, we tested the effects of the PI combination lopinavir and ritonavir on glucose and lipid metabolism in HIV-negative(More)
We evaluated the hypothesis that coordinated adjustments in absolute rates of gluconeogenesis (GNG(ab)) and hepatic glycogenolysis (Gly) would maintain euglycemia and match glucose production (GP) to peripheral utilization during rest and exercise. Specifically, we evaluated the extent to which gradations in exercise power output would affect the(More)