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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent liver disease worldwide, and is commonly associated with the metabolic syndrome. Secular trends in the prevalence of these diseases may be associated with the increased fructose consumption observed in the Western diet. NAFLD is characterized by two steps of liver injury: intrahepatic lipid(More)
We evaluated the hypothesis that coordinated adjustments in absolute rates of gluconeogenesis (GNG(ab)) and hepatic glycogenolysis (Gly) would maintain euglycemia and match glucose production (GP) to peripheral utilization during rest and exercise. Specifically, we evaluated the extent to which gradations in exercise power output would affect the(More)
BACKGROUND Hypertriglyceridemia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Until recently, the importance of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in contributing to hypertriglyceridemia was difficult to assess because of methodologic limitations. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the extent of the contribution by DNL to different conditions associated(More)
Altered gut and pancreatic hormone secretion may bolster resolution of insulin resistance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), but the independent effects of weight loss and hormonal secretion on peripheral glucose disposal are unknown. Two groups of nondiabetic morbidly obese patients were studied: RYGB followed by standardized caloric restriction (RYGB,(More)
CONTEXT Leptin deficiency is associated with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in animals and humans with lipoatrophy; leptin replacement ameliorates these abnormalities. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of leptin therapy in lipoatrophic HIV-infected patients with dyslipidemia and hypoleptinemia. DESIGN This was a(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The effects of dietary sugar on risk factors and the processes associated with metabolic disease remain a controversial topic, with recent reviews of the available evidence arriving at widely discrepant conclusions. RECENT FINDINGS There are many recently published epidemiological studies that provide evidence that sugar consumption is(More)
We recently reported that treatment with a pharmacologic dose of recombinant human growth hormone (GH) resulted in a significant loss of body fat and gain in lean tissue in HIV-infected patients with syndromes of fat accumulation. However, insulin-mediated glucose disposal decreased transiently after one month of GH therapy. The present paper focuses on the(More)
BACKGROUND Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been shown to be associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, fatty liver, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that adverse metabolic effects of chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are a consequence of increased circulating glucose and insulin excursions, ie,(More)
H ypoxia in obese adipose tissue (AT) plays an important role in the development of whole-body insulin resistance by inducing local inflammation and the release of proinflammatory cyto-kines (1). Yet, living at high altitude is associated with a lower prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes compared with living at low altitude (2).(More)
Pharmacologic doses of growth hormone (GH) reduce HIV-associated fat accumulation but may worsen glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of a low dose of GH (1 mg per day) in HIV-infected men with fat accumulation and found that such treatment reduced total fat and increased lean body mass without significant changes in glucose tolerance or insulin(More)