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The tonoplast was proposed as a default destination of membrane-bound proteins without specific targeting signals. To investigate the nature of this targeting, we created type I fusion proteins with green fluorescent protein followed by the transmembrane domain of the human lysosomal protein LAMP1. We varied the length of the transmembrane domain from 23 to(More)
Tobacco contains different isoforms of chitinase (EC, a hydrolase thought to be involved in the defense against pathogens. Deduced amino acid sequences for putatively vacuolar, basic chitinases differ from the homologous extracellular, acidic isoforms by the presence of a C-terminal extension. To examine the role of this C-terminal extension in(More)
In receptor-mediated transport pathways in mammalian cells, clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) mu-adaptins are the main binding partners for the tyrosine sorting/internalization motif (YXXØ). We have analyzed the function of the mu A-adaptin, one of the five mu-adaptins from Arabidopsis thaliana, by pull-down assays and plasmon resonance measurements using its(More)
An individual plant cell may contain at least two functionally and structurally distinct types of vacuoles: protein storage vacuoles and lytic vacuoles. Presumably a cell that stores proteins in vacuoles must maintain these separate compartments to prevent exposure of the storage proteins to an acidified environment with active hydrolytic enzymes where they(More)
Protein trafficking to two different types of vacuoles was investigated in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv SR1) mesophyll protoplasts using two different vacuolar green fluorescent proteins (GFPs). One GFP is targeted to a pH-neutral vacuole by the C-terminal vacuolar sorting determinant of tobacco chitinase A, whereas the other GFP is targeted to an acidic(More)
Gene targeting (GT) is a major tool for basic and applied research during which the transforming DNA, which shares sequence homology with a chromosomal target, integrates at the corresponding locus by homologous recombination (HR). In eukaryotes, GT recruits enzymes from the HR-mediated double strand break repair pathway. Different mechanisms of HR have(More)
BP-80, later renamed VSR(PS-1), is a putative receptor involved in sorting proteins such as proaleurain to the lytic vacuole, with its N-terminal domain recognizing the vacuolar sorting determinant. Although all VSR(PS-1) characteristics and in vitro binding properties described so far favored its receptor function, this function remained to be(More)
Proline transporters (ProTs) mediate transport of the compatible solutes Pro, glycine betaine, and the stress-induced compound gamma-aminobutyric acid. A new member of this gene family, AtProT3, was isolated from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), and its properties were compared to AtProT1 and AtProT2. Transient expression of fusions of AtProT and the(More)
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria can be detected in living plant cells after transient transformation of protoplasts. Expression of the GFP can be used to monitor protein trafficking in a mixed cell population and also to study the different function and importance of organelles in different cell types. We developed a vacuolar form(More)