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We developed an automated pipeline for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in expressed sequence tag (EST) data sets, by combining three DNA sequence analysis programs: Phred, Phrap and PolyBayes. This application requires access to the individual electrophoregram traces. First, a reference set of 65 SNPs was obtained from the sequencing(More)
BACKGROUND Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) are a source of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that can be used to develop molecular markers for genetic studies. The availability of ESTs for Quercus robur and Quercus petraea provided a unique opportunity to develop microsatellite markers to accelerate research aimed at studying adaptation of these long-lived(More)
BACKGROUND There is considerable interest in the high-throughput discovery and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to accelerate genetic mapping and enable association studies. This study provides an assessment of EST-derived and resequencing-derived SNP quality in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), a conifer characterized by a huge(More)
Environmental, developmental and genetic factors affect variation in wood properties at the chemical, anatomical and physical levels. Here, the phenotypic variation observed along the tree stem was explored and the hypothesis tested that this variation could be the result of the differential expression of genes/proteins during wood formation.(More)
BACKGROUND Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies,(More)
We explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variation in candidate genes for bud burst from Quercus petraea populations sampled along gradients of latitude and altitude in Western Europe. SNP diversity was monitored for 106 candidate genes, in 758 individuals from 32 natural populations. We investigated whether SNP variation reflected the clinal(More)
In a previous article [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 2196 (2007)] we have modeled skin color using the radiative transfer equation, solved by the auxiliary function method. Three main parameters have been determined as being predominant in the diversity of skin color: the concentrations of melanosomes and of red blood cells and the oxygen saturation of blood. From(More)
In most scattering media, the scattering centers have random shapes and sizes, preventing any theoretical approach for the determination of their absorption and scattering coefficients. Three different experimental protocols are here selected and briefly described. The obtained values are compared and then validated from a comparison with the most rigorous(More)
Growth, development and productivity of long-lived organisms such as forest trees are continuously challenged by abiotic stresses, and may also be greatly affected by predicted climatic change. As a first step toward creating stress-resistant maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) varieties by marker-assisted breeding, we describe the identification and(More)
BACKGROUND The Fagaceae family comprises about 1,000 woody species worldwide. About half belong to the Quercus family. These oaks are often a source of raw material for biomass wood and fiber. Pedunculate and sessile oaks, are among the most important deciduous forest tree species in Europe. Despite their ecological and economical importance, very few(More)