Jean‐Marc Collard

Learn More
the presence of Rickettsia sp. in cell culture, and R. sibirica mongoliti-monae was identifi ed by PCR and se-quencing as described above (online Appendix Figure). R. sibirica mongolitimonae was fi rst isolated in Beijing in 1991 from H. asiaticum ticks (formerly named R. sibirica HA-91), and the fi rst human infection was reported in 1996 (4). Since that(More)
BACKGROUND Meningococcal meningitis is a major health problem in the "African Meningitis Belt" where recurrent epidemics occur during the hot, dry season. In Niger, a central country belonging to the Meningitis Belt, reported meningitis cases varied between 1,000 and 13,000 from 2003 to 2009, with a case-fatality rate of 5-15%. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
BACKGROUND Study of meningococcal carriage is essential to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis infection. METHODS Twenty cross-sectional carriage surveys were conducted in 7 countries in the African meningitis belt; 5 surveys were conducted after introduction of a new serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenAfriVac).(More)
OBJECTIVE Detection of meningococcal carriers is key to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, yet no gold standard has been established. Here, we directly compare two methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs to identify meningococcal carriers. METHODS We conducted cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren at multiple sites in Africa to(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' changes periodically. In order to design an effective vaccination strategy, we have examined the epidemiological and microbiological patterns of bacterial meningitis, and especially that of meningococcal meningitis, in Niger during the period 2008-2011. During this period a(More)
This work aimed at studying the link between some climatic factors and the occurrence of influenza in Niamey, Niger. Patients with influenza like illness or severe acute respiratory illness were recruited through a sentinel network. A nasopharyngeal swab was sampled and tested for influenza viruses A and B by RT-PCR. Time series of daily counts of influenza(More)
BACKGROUND The epidemiology of pneumococcal meningitis in the African 'meningitis belt' is poorly studied. In order to ensure an effective vaccination strategy and post-vaccination surveillance, we examined the serotype distribution patterns of pneumococcal meningitis in Niger over the period 2003-2011. METHODS Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were(More)
Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010-March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children <5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute(More)
BACKGROUND During the first introduction of a group A meningococcal vaccine (PsA-TT) in 2010-2011 and its rollout from 2011 to 2013, >150 million eligible people, representing 12 hyperendemic meningitis countries, have been vaccinated. METHODS The new vaccine effectiveness evaluation framework was established by the World Health Organization and partners.(More)
BACKGROUND Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases,(More)