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The gram-negative pathogen Shigella flexneri causes bacillary dysentery, an invasive disease of the human colonic mucosa. A major characteristic of the infectious process is the occurrence of an acute inflammatory reaction of mucosal tissues which is generally consequence of primary invasion and destruction of colonic epithelial cells by the pathogen.(More)
Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, is a deadly disease. In recent years, exciting advances have been made in the understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment. Pathogens, via their microbial-associated molecular patterns, trigger sequential intracellular events in immune cells, epithelium, endothelium, and the neuroendocrine system.(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the immunoinflammatory profile of patients successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest, representing a model of whole-body ischemia/reperfusion syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS Plasma cytokine, endotoxin, and ex vivo cytokine production in whole-blood assays was assessed in 61, 35, and 11 patients, respectively. On admission,(More)
  • J M Cavaillon
  • 1994
Macrophages, within the cytokine network, are a major source of many cytokines involved in immune response, hematopoiesis, inflammation and many other homeostatic processes. Upon stimulation by micro-organisms, microbial products or endogenous factors including cytokines, macrophages can de novo synthesize and release a large variety of cytokines (ie IL-1,(More)
The concept of 'Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome' (CARS) was proposed in 1997 by Roger Bone (1941-1997) to qualify the consequences of the counter-regulatory mechanisms initiated to limit the overzealous inflammatory process in patients with infectious (sepsis) or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). One major(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells were first described as immune leukocytes that could kill tumor cells and soon after were reported to kill virus-infected cells. In the mid-1980s, 10 years after their discovery, NK cells were also demonstrated to contribute to the fight against bacterial infection, particularly because of crosstalk with other leukocytes. A wide(More)
Immune status is altered in patients with sepsis or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Reduced ex-vivo TNF production by endotoxin-activated monocytes has been regularly reported. This observation is reminiscent of the phenomenon of endotoxin tolerance, and the term 'leukocyte reprogramming' well defines this phenomenon. This(More)
Major trauma is associated with a decreased capacity of patients' leukocytes to produce proinflammatory cytokines on in vitro stimulation. We studied leukocytes from 48 patients with trauma and showed that this hyporeactivity was restricted to gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli endotoxin, and unmethylated bacterial DNA, whereas Leptospira interrogans(More)
Re-exposure of organisms or cells to endotoxin after a previous challenge is not accompanied by the profound metabolic changes that are induced by the first encounter with endotoxin. Endotoxin tolerance is not specific to the action of lipopolysaccharide, and crossreactivity with other exogenous stimuli occurs. Various cytokines can mimic the effects of(More)
OBJECTIVE Immune status is altered during systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Reduced ex vivo tumor necrosis factor production has been regularly reported with lipopolysaccharide-activated monocytes. In this study, we addressed the specificity of this hyporeactivity and investigated some of the possible associated mechanistic events. (More)