Jean-Marc Alessandri

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The importance of a high fat intake in the increasing prevalence of childhood and adult obesity remains controversial. Moreover, qualitative changes (i.e. the fatty acid composition of fats) have been largely disregarded. Herein is reviewed the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the n-6 series in promoting adipogenesis in vitro and favouring(More)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are the major polyunsaturated fatty acids in the membranes of brain and retinal cells. Animals specifically deficient in dietary n-3 fatty acids have low DHA content in their membranes, reduced visual acuity and impaired learning ability. Studies on bottle-fed human infants have shown(More)
The accretion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in membranes of the central nervous system is required for the optimum development of retina and brain functions. DHA status is determined by the dietary intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), both the metabolic precursor α-linolenic acid (α-LNA) and DHA. Clinical studies have shown that feeding term or(More)
Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of cell membranes and have beneficial effects on human health. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) is the most biologically important n-3 PUFA and can be synthesized from its dietary essential precursor, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3). Gender differences in the efficiency of DHA(More)
Hormonal and nutritional factors regulate the metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). We aimed to determine whether ovarian hormones influence the capacity of rats to synthesize the end-products 22:6n-3 (DHA) and 22:5n-6 (n-6DPA) from their respective dietary precursors (18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6), and can regulate PUFA conversion enzymes(More)
Omega-3 (ω3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ω3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ω3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve(More)
The protection of the developing organism from oxidative damage is ensured by antioxidant defense systems to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn can be influenced by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFAs in membrane phospholipids are substrates for ROS-induced peroxidation reactions. We investigated the effects of dietary(More)
This study aimed to seek whether habitual fish and seafood or n-3 long-chain PUFA intake could influence the occurrence of depressive episodes. In a subsample from the French SU.VI.MAX cohort, dietary habits have been assessed during the first 2 years of the follow-up (six 24-h records) and declarations of antidepressant prescription, taken as markers of(More)
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in membranes, is particularly abundant in brain cells. Decreased cerebral concentrations of DHA, resulting from dietary n-3 deficiency, are associated with impaired cognitive function. Because the cellular causes of this impairment are still unknown, we need in vitro models that(More)
Optimal levels of unsaturated fatty acids have positive impacts on the use of prolonged bouts of hypothermia in mammalian hibernators, which generally have to face low winter ambient temperatures. Unsaturated fatty acids can maintain the fluidity of fat and membrane phospholipids at low body temperatures. However, less attention has been paid to their role(More)