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Extensive detail on the application of the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) for the analysis of gene expression is provided in this unit. The protocols are designed for high-throughput, 384-well-format instruments, such as the Applied Biosystems 7900HT, but may be modified to suit any real-time PCR instrument. QPCR primer and probe(More)
Genetic studies in chickens and receptor interference experiments have indicated that avian leukosis virus (ALV)-E may utilize a cellular receptor related to the receptor for ALV-B and ALV-D. Recently, we cloned CAR1, a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-related protein, that serves as a cellular receptor for ALV-B and ALV-D. To determine whether the(More)
The program of gene expression exhibited by herpes simplex virus during productive infection of cultured cells is well established; however, less is known about the regulatory controls governing reactivation from latency in neurons. One difficulty in examining gene regulation during reactivation lies in distinguishing between events occurring in initial(More)
Several herpes simplex virus 1 microRNAs are encoded within or near the latency associated transcript (LAT) locus, and are expressed abundantly during latency. Some of these microRNAs can repress the expression of important viral proteins and are hypothesized to play important roles in establishing and/or maintaining latent infections. We found that in(More)
UNLABELLED Herpesvirus nucleocapsids exit the host cell nucleus in an unusual process known as nuclear egress. The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL97 protein kinase is required for efficient nuclear egress, which can be explained by its phosphorylation of the nuclear lamina component lamin A/C, which disrupts the nuclear lamina. We found that a dominant(More)
To facilitate studies of herpes simplex virus 1 latency, cell culture models of quiescent or latent infection have been developed. Using deep sequencing, we analyzed the expression of viral microRNAs (miRNAs) in two models employing human fibroblasts and one using rat neurons. In all cases, the expression patterns differed from that in productively infected(More)
Protein-protein interactions are required for many biological functions. Previous work has demonstrated an interaction between the human cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase subunit UL44 and the viral replication factor UL84. In this study, glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays indicated that residues 1 to 68 of UL84 are both necessary and sufficient for(More)
After infecting peripheral sites, herpes simplex virus (HSV) invades the nervous system and initiates latent infection in sensory neurons. Establishment and maintenance of HSV latency require host survival, and entail repression of productive cycle ("lytic") viral gene expression. We find that a neuron-specific microRNA, miR-138, represses expression of(More)
Two important issues regarding a virus mutant that is resistant to an antiviral drug are its ability to replicate in animal hosts (in vivo fitness) relative to other genetic variants, including wild type, and its ability to cause disease. These issues have been investigated for a herpes simplex virus 1 mutant that is resistant to thiourea compounds, which(More)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encodes one conventional protein kinase, UL97. During infection, UL97 phosphorylates the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) on sites ordinarily phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK), inactivating the ability of pRb to repress host genes required for cell cycle progression to S phase. UL97 is important for(More)