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A number of diseases are due to lysosomal destabilization, which results in damaging cell loss. To investigate the mechanisms of lysosomal cell death, we characterized the cytotoxic action of two widely used quinolone antibiotics: ciprofloxacin (CPX) or norfloxacin (NFX). CPX or NFX plus UV light (NFX*) induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), as(More)
The proapoptotic activity of the transcription factor p53 critically depends on the phosphorylation of serine 46 (p53S46P). Here, we show that syncytia containing p53S46P could be detected in lymph node biopsies from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 carriers, in the brain of patients with HIV-1-associated dementia and in cocultures of HeLa expressing(More)
Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) can activate purinergic receptors of the plasma membrane and modulate multiple cellular functions. We report that ATP is released from HIV-1 target cells through pannexin-1 channels upon interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein and specific target cell receptors. Extracellular ATP then acts on purinergic(More)
Viruses mercilessly exploit their host cells to guarantee their own proliferation and propagation. To achieve this goal, many viruses suppress the apoptotic program, thereby avoiding premature death of the host cell. Indeed, apopto-sis of infected cells may be considered as a pristine defense against infectious pathogens, as illustrated by a simple(More)
The coculture of cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) with cells expressing CD4 results into cell fusion, deregulated mitosis, and subsequent cell death. Here, we show that NF-kappaB, p53, and AP1 are activated in Env-elicited apoptosis. The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) super repressor had an antimitotic and antiapoptotic(More)
Infection with an obligate intracellular bacterium, the Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) strain or the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis serovar of Chlamydia psittaci, leads to apoptosis of host cells. The apoptosis is not affected by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, and caspase-3 is not activated in infected cells, suggesting(More)
DNA damage can activate the oncosuppressor protein ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), which phosphorylates the histone H2AX within characteristic DNA damage foci. Here, we show that ATM undergoes an activating phosphorylation in syncytia elicited by the envelope glycoprotein complex (Env) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) in vitro. This was(More)
N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR, fenretinide) is a potent chemopreventive agent whose effect has been suggested to involve apoptosis induction. 4-HPR induces a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the mitochondrial release of cytochrome c before caspase activation. Inhibition of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) by(More)
Viruses mercilessly exploit their host cells to guarantee their own proliferation and propagation. To achieve this goal, many viruses suppress the apoptotic program, thereby avoiding premature death of the host cell. Indeed, apopto-sis of infected cells may be considered as a pristine defense against infectious pathogens, as illustrated by a simple(More)
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