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We have developed a new primer design method based on the QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis protocol, which significantly improves the PCR amplification efficiency. This design method minimizes primer dimerization and ensures the priority of primer-template annealing over primer self-pairing during the PCR. Several different multiple mutations (up to 7(More)
All molecules of up to 11 atoms of C, N, O, and F possible under consideration of simple valency, chemical stability, and synthetic feasibility rules were generated and collected in a database (GDB). GDB contains 26.4 million molecules (110.9 million stereoisomers), including three- and four-membered rings and triple bonds. By comparison, only 63 857(More)
Drug molecules consist of a few tens of atoms connected by covalent bonds. How many such molecules are possible in total and what is their structure? This question is of pressing interest in medicinal chemistry to help solve the problems of drug potency, selectivity, and toxicity and reduce attrition rates by pointing to new molecular series. To better(More)
Multivalency plays a major role in biological processes and particularly in the relationship between pathogenic microorganisms and their host that involves protein-glycan recognition. These interactions occur during the first steps of infection, for specific recognition between host and bacteria, but also at different stages of the immune response. The(More)
The water soluble fluorescein-based ligand 1 forms a non-fluorescent complex with Cu(2+). This complex serves as a fluorescent sensor for amino acids in the 10(-3) M concentration range. Since the signal response is very fast, the sensor can be used to detect the hydrolytic activity of various proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin, subtilisin) on bovine serum(More)
The flipping of membrane-embedded lipids containing large, polar head groups is slow and energetically unfavourable, and is therefore catalysed by flippases, the mechanisms of which are unknown. A prominent example of a flipping reaction is the translocation of lipid-linked oligosaccharides that serve as donors in N-linked protein glycosylation. In(More)
Glycodendrimers, such as glycoclusters and glycopolymers, are known to be very useful molecules to probe carbohydrate-lectin interactions. Herein, new second generation glycopeptide dendrimers (G2a-f) presenting a L-lysine-based (Lys) tetraantennary scaffold, four external thiomannosyl residues and, in the case of compounds G2b-f, four copies of a variable(More)