Jean-Louis Guéant

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The pathogenic mechanism of neural tube defects may involve genetic polymorphisms and nutritional factors related to homocysteine metabolism. We evaluated the association of polymorphisms of three genes affecting vitamin B12-dependent remethylation of homocysteine, transcobalamin (TC), methionine synthase (MTR) and MTR reductase (MTRR), combined or not with(More)
Although recent studies have documented compensatory generation of neurons in adult brains in response to various insults, a noninjurious short episode of hypoxia in rat neonates has been shown to trigger neurogenesis within the ensuing weeks, without apparent brain lesions. Very little is known of the long-term consequences. We therefore investigated the(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic polymorphisms of APO-E, homocysteine, and the IL-1 gene cluster (IL-1A, IL-1B, receptor antagonist IL-1RN) are associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease and may involve interdependent pathways of neuronal toxicity. OBJECTIVE To determine whether these polymorphisms and the genetic determinants of homocysteine(More)
Although neonatal hypoxia can lead to brain damage, mild hypoxic episodes may be beneficial, as illustrated by tolerance induction by preconditioning, a process that might involve neurogenesis. To examine if brief hypoxia in newborn rats could stimulate the generation of neurons, pups were exposed for 5 min to 100% N2. Cell density and apoptosis were(More)
OBJECTIVE Down's syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic cause of Alzheimer-type dementia. Its metabolic phenotype involves an increased trans-sulphuration of homocysteine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of homocysteinaemia (t-Hcys), folate, vitamin B(12), and related polymorphisms on intelligence quotient (IQ) in DS. (More)
Folate plays a key role in the interactions between nutrition, fetal programming, and epigenomics. Maternal folate status influences DNA methylation, inheritance of the agouti phenotype, expression of imprinting genes, and the effects of mycotoxin FB1 on heterochromatin assembly in rodent offspring. Deficiency in folate and other methyl donors increases(More)
Although the genetic link between the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well established, the apoE isoform-specific activity underlying this correlation remains unclear. We have recently characterized the interaction of the soluble the amyloid-beta peptide (A beta) with model membrane and demonstrated that(More)
Gestational deficiency in methyl donors such as folate and vitamin B12 impairs homocysteine metabolism and can alter brain development in the progeny. Since short hypoxia has been shown to be neuroprotective in preconditioning studies, we aimed to investigate the effects of brief, non-lesioning neonatal hypoxia (100% N2 for 5 min) on the developing brain of(More)
The methyl donors folate (vitamin B9) and vitamin B12 are centrepieces of the one-carbon metabolism that has a key role in transmethylation reactions, and thus in epigenetic and epigenomic regulations. Low dietary intakes of folate and vitamin B12 are frequent, especially in pregnant women and in the elderly, and deficiency constitutes a risk factor for(More)
Homocysteine metabolism is influenced by genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677 C-->T and 1298 A-->C) and transcobalamin genes (TCN1 776 C-->G ). We evaluated the association of homocysteine with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the influence of related polymorphisms and APOE, in 180 cases and 181 controls from southern(More)