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The various grading systems proposed for renal cell carcinomas all suffer from problems related to inter-observer variability. Some of these grading systems are based, either partially or wholly, on morphonuclear criteria, such as nuclear size and shape, anisonucleosis, and chromatin pattern. These criteria can be quantitatively (and thus objectively)(More)
BACKGROUND Epiluminescence microscopy (ELM) is a noninvasive clinical tool recently developed for the diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), with the aim of improving melanoma screening strategies. However, the complexity of the ELM grading protocol means that considerable expertise is required for differential diagnosis. In this paper we propose a(More)
Whether they are of low or high histopathological grade, human astrocytic tumors are characterized by a marked propensity to diffuse into large areas of normal brain parenchyma. This invasion relates mainly to cell motility, which enables individual cell migration to take place. The present study characterizes in vitro the gastrin-mediated effects on both(More)
The aggressiveness of human bladder tumours can be assessed by means of various classification systems, including the one proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO classification, three levels of malignancy are identified as grades I (low), II (intermediate), and III (high). This classification system operates satisfactorily for(More)
BACKGROUND Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) mediate their effects through at least two types of receptors (CCK receptors A and B). While it has been hypothesized that gastrin, a stimulator of gastric acid secretion, is also a neurotransmitter and a stimulator of cell proliferation in various normal and neoplastic tissues, its effect on astrocytic brain(More)
Although the importance of selenium for bone metabolism is unknown, some clinical conditions such as Kashin-Beck osteoarthropathy have been associated with selenium deficiency. Although selenium deficiency induces growth retardation in rats, it has not been established whether this growth inhibition is associated with changes in bone metabolism. We(More)
Tumor growth represents the ratio between cell gain (number of mitoses per unit of time, i.e., proliferative activity) and cell loss (number of cell deaths during the same unit of time). While in adults, proliferative activity parallels the level of malignancy in astrocytic tumors and therefore represents a useful diagnostic marker, cell loss has never been(More)
The aim of the present work is to present the potential uses of a classification technique labeled the "decision tree" for tumor characterisation when faced with a large number of features. The decision tree technique enables multifeature logical classification rules to be produced by determining discriminatory values for each feature selected. In this(More)
To assess the effectiveness of nuclear magnetic-resonance imaging in the detection of osteonecrosis of the femoral head, we studied the cases of twenty-five patients (forty-nine hips) in whom necrosis of the femoral head was suspected on the basis of plain radiographs, computed tomographic scans, radionuclide bone scans, and magnetic resonance-imaging(More)