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Many factors can affect the assembly of communities, ranging from species pools to habitat effects to interspecific interactions. In microbial communities, the predominant focus has been on the well-touted ability of microbes to disperse and the environment acting as a selective filter to determine which species are present. In this study, we investigated(More)
The focus of many fungal endophyte studies has been how plants benefit from endophyte infection. Few studies have investigated the role of the host plant as an environment in shaping endophyte community diversity and composition. The effects that different attributes of the host plant, that is, host genetic variation, host variation in resistance to the(More)
Comparisons of phylogenetic patterns between coevolving symbionts can reveal rich details about the evolutionary history of symbioses. The ancient symbiosis between fungus-growing ants, their fungal cultivars, antibiotic-producing bacteria and cultivar-infecting parasites is dominated by a pattern of parallel coevolution, where the symbionts of each(More)
Endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. We used endophytic isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis DC (Corda). Endophytic F. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto(More)
We have analyzed the expression pattern of protocadherin-19, a member of the delta2-protocadherins, in the nervous system of developing zebrafish using in situ hybridization methods. mRNA encoding protocadherin-19 (Pcdh19) began to be expressed at about 12 hours post fertilization (hpf) showing a segmental expression pattern in the anterior 1/3 of the(More)
Parasites and pathogens are hypothesized to change host growth, reproduction and/or behaviour to increase their own transmission. However, studies which clearly demonstrate that parasites or pathogens are directly responsible for changes in hosts are lacking. We previously found that infection by the systemic fungus Epichloë glyceriae was associated with(More)
In this study we analyzed expression patterns of two delta-protocadherins, protocadherin-9 and protocadherin-17, in the developing zebrafish using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR methods. Both protocadherins were mainly detected in the embryonic central nervous system, but each showed a distinct expression pattern. Protocadherin-9 message (Pcdh9) was(More)
In oncology clinical trials, progression-free survival (PFS), generally defined as the time from randomization until disease progression or death, has been a key endpoint to support licensing approval. In the U.S. Food and Drug Administration guidance for industry, May 2007, concerning the PFS as the primary or co-primary clinical trial endpoint, it is(More)
Empirical examples of natural metacommunities lag behind theoretical developments and therefore are needed to understand how the relative contributions of dispersal and environmental filtering varies taxonomically and in different environments. Here, we use the geographic distributions of ostracode species and their morphological traits in lakes on San(More)
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