Jean H. Humphrey

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OBJECTIVES The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to reduce the postnatal transmission (PNT) of HIV is based on limited data. In the context of a trial of postpartum vitamin A supplementation, we provided education and counseling about infant feeding and HIV, prospectively collected information on infant feeding practices, and measured associated(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate the BED capture enzyme immunoassay for HIV-1 subtype C and to derive adjustments facilitating estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional surveys. DESIGN Laboratory analysis of archived plasma samples collected in Zimbabwe. METHODS Serial plasma samples from 85 women who seroconverted to HIV-1 during the postpartum year were(More)
BACKGROUND HIV causes substantial mortality among African children but there is limited data on how this is influenced by maternal or infant infection status and timing. METHODS Children enrolled in the ZVITAMBO trial were divided into 5 groups: those born to HIV-negative mothers (NE, n = 9510), those born to HIV-positive mothers but noninfected (NI, n =(More)
BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether vitamin A supplementation at birth could reduce infant morbidity and mortality. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a placebo-controlled trial among 2067 Indonesian neonates who received either 52 micromol (50,000 IU) orally administered vitamin A or placebo on the first day of life. Infants were followed up at 1 year to determine the(More)
BACKGROUND Low maternal serum retinol level is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Multiple-large-dose vitamin A supplementation of HIV-positive children reduces mortality. The World Health Organization recommends single-large-dose vitamin A supplementation for postpartum women in areas of prevalent(More)
BACKGROUND Young infants are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers improves the vitamin A status of their infants, but there are no data regarding its effect on infant mortality, and data on the effect of directly supplementing infants during the first few weeks of life are conflicting. OBJECTIVE The objective was to(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is common among women in resource-poor countries and is associated with greater mortality during HIV. METHODS Fourteen thousand one hundred ten mothers were tested for HIV and randomly administered 400,000 IU vitamin A or placebo at less than 96 hours postpartum. The effects of vitamin A and HIV status on mortality, health(More)
BACKGROUND Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and(More)