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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. NAFLD represents a large spectrum of diseases ranging from (i) fatty liver (hepatic steatosis); (ii) steatosis with inflammation and necrosis; and (iii) cirrhosis. Although the molecular mechanism leading to the development of hepatic steatosis in(More)
Obesity is a disorder of energy balance, indicating a chronic disequilibrium between energy intake and expenditure. Recently, the mouse ob gene, and subsequently its human and rat homologues, have been cloned. The ob gene product, leptin, is expressed exclusively in adipose tissue, and appears to be a signalling factor regulating body-weight homeostasis and(More)
In mammals, the regulation of hepatic metabolism plays a key role in whole body energy balance, since the liver is the major site of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and glycogen synthesis) and triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis). Lipogenesis is regulated through the acute control of key enzyme activities by means of allosteric and covalent(More)
Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are potent inhibitors of hepatic glycolysis and lipogenesis. Recently, carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was implicated in the regulation by glucose of glycolytic and lipogenic genes, including those encoding L-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The aim of our study was to(More)
Obesity is a metabolic disorder often associated with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice are a well-characterized mouse model of obesity in which increased hepatic lipogenesis is thought to be responsible for the phenotype of insulin resistance. We have recently demonstrated that carbohydrate responsive(More)
Starvation in 15 geese (mean initial body mass, m = 6.3 kg) fasting for about 40 days (mean decrease in m = 2.5 kg) was characterized by three periods. Period I (3-8 days), an adaptation period, was marked by a considerable decrease in the daily rate of change in m (dm) as well as in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and by high fat mobilization. In period II(More)
The metabolic response to the first fast experienced by all mammals has been studied in the newborn rat. Levels of fuels and hormones have been compared in the fetal and maternal circulations at term. Then, after cesarean section just before the normal time of birth, sequential changes in the same parameters were quantified during the first 16 h of the(More)
Hepatic glucokinase (GK) catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P), a step which is essential for glucose metabolism in liver as well as for the induction of glycolytic and lipogenic genes. The sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) has emerged as a major mediator of insulin action on hepatic gene expression, but(More)
Dysregulations in hepatic lipid synthesis are often associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, and therefore a perfect understanding of the regulation of this metabolic pathway appears essential to identify potential therapeutic targets. Recently, the transcription factor ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein) has emerged as a major(More)
Regulation of gene expression by nutrients is an important mechanism in the adaptation of mammals to their nutritional environment. This is especially true for enzymes involved in the storage of energy, such as the lipogenic and glycolytic enzymes in liver and adipose tissue. Transcription of the genes for lipogenic and glycolytic enzymes is stimulated by(More)