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Rates of developmental and respiratory diseases are disproportionately high in underserved, minority populations such as those in New York City's Washington Heights, Harlem, and the South Bronx. Blacks and Latinos in these neighborhoods represent high risk groups for asthma, adverse birth outcomes, impaired development, and some types of cancer. The(More)
Racial and ethnic minorities, older adults, rural residents, and individuals of low socioeconomic status are underrepresented among participants in cancer-related trials. The authors conducted a systematic review to determine the barriers to participation of underrepresented populations in cancer-related trials. Their search included English-language(More)
BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to summarize the published literature concerning the epidemiology of lung cancer. METHODS A narrative review of published evidence was conducted, identifying and summarizing key reports that describe the occurrence of lung cancer in populations and factors that affect lung cancer risk. RESULTS In the United(More)
BACKGROUND The issue of whether regular use of an inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist worsens airflow and clinical outcomes in asthma is controversial. Retrospective studies have suggested that adverse effects occur in patients with a genetic polymorphism that results in homozygosity for arginine (Arg/Arg), rather than glycine (Gly/Gly), at aminoacid residue(More)
Primary sensitization to antigens may occur prenatally. We hypothesized that high prenatal exposure to indoor antigens increases the risk for sensitization in newborns in New York City populations with increased risk for asthma. We also investigated whether maternal sensitization is required for in utero sensitization to occur. One hundred sixty-seven(More)
Inhaled beta-adrenergic agonists are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of asthma although there is evidence that regular use may produce adverse effects in some patients. Polymorphisms of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) can affect regulation of the receptor. Smaller studies examining the effects of such polymorphisms on the(More)
Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral(More)
Mexico harbors great cultural and ethnic diversity, yet fine-scale patterns of human genome-wide variation from this region remain largely uncharacterized. We studied genomic variation within Mexico from over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations. We found striking genetic stratification among indigenous populations within(More)
The safety of sputum induction and the reproducibility of measurements in induced sputum in multicenter studies is unknown. We examined the safety of sputum induction in a two-visit, six-center study in 79 subjects with moderate to severe asthma (mean +/- SD FEV(1) 71 +/- 12% predicted, 67% taking inhaled corticosteroids). In addition, we compared the(More)
BACKGROUND Asthma is a complex disease characterized by striking ethnic disparities not explained entirely by environmental, social, cultural, or economic factors. Of the limited genetic studies performed on populations of African descent, notable differences in susceptibility allele frequencies have been observed. OBJECTIVES We sought to test the(More)