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BACKGROUND The goal of DNA barcoding is to develop a species-specific sequence library for all eukaryotes. A 650 bp fragment of the cytochrome c oxidase 1 (CO1) gene has been used successfully for species-level identification in several animal groups. It may be difficult in practice, however, to retrieve a 650 bp fragment from archival specimens, (because(More)
This study reports DNA barcodes for more than 1300 Lepidoptera species from the eastern half of North America, establishing that 99.3 per cent of these species possess diagnostic barcode sequences. Intraspecific divergences averaged just 0.43 per cent among this assemblage, but most values were lower. The mean was elevated by deep barcode divergences(More)
In this work, we take a closer look at the difficulties inherent to the creation of AI for the game of Straight Billiards (14.1 continuous). We begin by establishing the key components that make this variant of billiards interesting in regard to past work on the game of Eight-Ball. We then address each of these components by decomposing the problem into two(More)
Inventory of the caterpillars, their food plants and parasitoids began in 1978 for today's Area de Conservacion Guanacaste (ACG), in northwestern Costa Rica. This complex mosaic of 120 000 ha of conserved and regenerating dry, cloud and rain forest over 0-2000 m elevation contains at least 10 000 species of non-leaf-mining caterpillars used by more than(More)
DNA barcoding is an effective approach for species identification and for discovery of new and/or cryptic species. Sanger sequencing technology is the method of choice for obtaining standard 650 bp cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) barcodes. However, DNA degradation/fragmentation makes it difficult to obtain a full-length barcode from old specimens.(More)
Many cold adapted species occur in both montane settings and in the subarctic. Their disjunct distributions create taxonomic complexity because there is no standardized method to establish whether their allopatric populations represent single or different species. This study employs DNA barcoding to gain new perspectives on the levels and patterns of(More)
Close interactions between insects and plants have played a major role in the evolution of both these diverse groups of organisms. Studying these interactions, however, can be difficult because many insects, especially parasites, impinge most strongly on plants during larval stages when they are morphologically difficult to identify, and many belong to(More)
BACKGROUND Yponomeutoidea, one of the early-diverging lineages of ditrysian Lepidoptera, comprise about 1,800 species worldwide, including notable pests and insect-plant interaction models. Yponomeutoids were one of the earliest lepidopteran clades to evolve external feeding and to extensively colonize herbaceous angiosperms. Despite the group's economic(More)
The genus Plutella was thought to be represented in Australia by a single introduced species, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), the diamondback moth. Its status as a major pest of cruciferous crops, and the difficulty in developing control strategies has motivated broad-ranging studies on its biology. Prior genetic work has generally supported the conclusion(More)
In this paper we explore the tactical aspects needed for the creation of an intelligent computer-pool player. The research results in three modifications to our previous model. An optimization procedure computes the shot parameters and repositions the cue ball on a given target. Moreover, we take a look at possible heuristics to generate a sound selection(More)