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The coordination environment and the redox speciation of arsenic in a newly discovered arsenic hyper-accumulating fern (Pteris vittata L) were investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This method allowed us to probe arsenic directly, i.e., with minimal sample preparation. The results indicate that arsenic is predominantly accumulated as As(III) in the(More)
Metal speciation in aquatic sediments is often characterized using wet chemical sequential extraction techniques. However, these methods are operationally defined and subject to artifacts, particularly when dealing with anoxic sediments, in which metal sulfide precipitates are likely to occur. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and acid-volatile(More)
The extensive use of nano-TiO2 in industry has led to growing concerns about its potential environmental impacts. However, negligible toxicity is commonly reported under insufficient illumination and artificial solution conditions in the literature, which rarely includes discussion of the regulating role of environmental factors. Herein, we report the(More)
Nanostructured titania (nano-TiO2) is produced in diverse shapes, but it remains largely unknown how tuning the morphology of nano-TiO2 may alter its toxicity. Herein, we show that material morphology plays a critical role in regulating the phototoxicity of nano-TiO2 to bacteria. Low-dimensional nano-TiO2, including nanotubes, nanorods, and nanosheets, were(More)
Nanostructured titania (nano-TiO2) is an engineered nanomaterial that can be cytotoxic primarily as a result of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species when illuminated. Production of nano-TiO2 has increased rapidly over the last decade, leading to concerns about its release into aquatic environments. To address the possible ecological impacts of(More)
A large number of microorganisms are responsible for the oxidation of Mn(2+)((aq)) to insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides (MnO(x)()) in natural aquatic systems. This paper reports the structure of the biogenic MnO(x)(), including a quantitative analysis of cation vacancies, formed by the freshwater bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP6 (SP6-MnO(x)()). The structure(More)
The nanotechnology industry is growing rapidly, leading to concerns about the potential ecological consequences of the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. One challenge of assessing the ecological risks of ENMs is the incredible diversity of ENMs currently available and the rapid pace at which new ENMs are being developed.(More)
We describe the characterization of an unknown and difficult to identify but geochemically and environmentally significant MnOx structure produced by a freshwater bacterium, Leptothrix discophora SP-6, using combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and UV Raman spectroscopy. The large(More)
Production of titanium-dioxide nanomaterials (nano-TiO2) is increasing, leading to potential risks associated with unintended release of these materials into aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the acute effects of nano-TiO2 on metabolic activity and viability of algae and cyanobacteria using high-throughput screening. The responses of three diatoms(More)
The geochemical behavior of Co in aquatic systems has often been related to the presence of Fe and Mn particles. A few studies have shown that Co is exclusively associated with particulate Mn, but the dynamics of Co and Mn cycling have never been determined in real time under natural conditions. In this study, we used a combination of analytical techniques(More)