Jean-François Gaillard

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A large number of microorganisms are responsible for the oxidation of Mn(2+)((aq)) to insoluble Mn(3+/4+) oxides (MnO(x)()) in natural aquatic systems. This paper reports the structure of the biogenic MnO(x)(), including a quantitative analysis of cation vacancies, formed by the freshwater bacterium Leptothrix discophora SP6 (SP6-MnO(x)()). The structure(More)
The nanotechnology industry is growing rapidly, leading to concerns about the potential ecological consequences of the release of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) to the environment. One challenge of assessing the ecological risks of ENMs is the incredible diversity of ENMs currently available and the rapid pace at which new ENMs are being developed.(More)
Production of titanium-dioxide nanomaterials (nano-TiO2) is increasing, leading to potential risks associated with unintended release of these materials into aquatic ecosystems. We investigated the acute effects of nano-TiO2 on metabolic activity and viability of algae and cyanobacteria using high-throughput screening. The responses of three diatoms(More)
The structure of amorphous In 2–2x Zn x Sn x O 3 (a-ZITO, x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the total scattering pair-distribution function (PDF) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), which revealed a well-defined short-range structure that differed from the crystalline bixbyite and corun-dum ZITO(More)
The corundum-type In(2-2x)Zn(x)Sn(x)O(3) solid solution (cor-ZITO, x ≤ 0.7) was synthesized at 1000 °C under a high pressure of 70 kbar. cor-ZITO is a high-pressure polymorph of the transparent conducting oxide bixbyite-In(2-2x)Zn(x)Sn(x)O(3) (x ≤ 0.4). Analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure suggests that significant face-sharing of Zn and(More)
The vibrational spectrum of Mg2.5VMoO8 obtained by quantum mechanical simulation is compared with the experimentally observed Raman spectrum. This simulation suggests that the observed band at 1016 cm(-1) is attributed to the Mo=O-Mg stretching from two-coordinate oxygen atoms that are adjacent to Mg2+ cation vacancies. Extended X-ray absorption fine(More)
Nano-TiO2 is an engineered nanomaterial whose production and use are increasing rapidly. Hence, aquatic habitats are at risk for nano-TiO2 contamination due to potential inputs from urban and suburban runoff and domestic wastewater. Nano-TiO2 has been shown to be toxic to a wide range of aquatic organisms, but little is known about the effects of nano-TiO2(More)
The use of diverse engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) potentially leads to the release of multiple ENMs into the environment. However, previous efforts to understand the behavior and the risks associated with ENMs have focused on only one material at a time. In this study, the chemical interactions between two of the most highly used ENMs, nano-TiO2, and(More)
Introduction The early 21st century is witnessing the transition of nanotechnology from discovery to commercialization. Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are incorporated into numerous commercial products ranging from pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to alternative energy and electronic devices, leading to a global market projected to reach $3 trillion in 2020(More)