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Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and first invade the liver of the mammalian host, as an obligatory step of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Within hepatocytes, Plasmodium sporozoites reside in a membrane-bound vacuole, where they differentiate into exoerythrocytic forms and merozoites that subsequently(More)
Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and invade hepatocytes as a first and obligatory step of the parasite life cycle in man. Hepatocyte invasion involves proteins secreted from parasite vesicles called micronemes, the most characterized being the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP). Here we investigated(More)
In eukaryotes, the high-mobility-group (HMG) nuclear factors are highly conserved throughout evolution and are divided into three families, including HGMB, characterized by an HMG box domain. Some HMGB factors are DNA structure specific and preferentially interact with distorted DNA sequences, trigger DNA bending, and hence facilitate the binding of(More)
Malaria relapses, resulting from the activation of quiescent hepatic hypnozoites of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale, hinder global efforts to control and eliminate malaria. As primaquine, the only drug capable of eliminating hypnozoites, is unsuitable for mass administration, an alternative drug is needed urgently. Currently, analyses of hypnozoites,(More)
Immunisation with live, radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS) or genetically attenuated sporozoites (GAS) of rodent plasmodial parasites protects against subsequent challenge infections. We recently showed that immunisation with Plasmodium berghei GAS that lack the microneme protein P36p protects mice for a period of up to 4 months. Here, we show that the(More)
The critical first step in the clinical development of a malaria vaccine, based on live-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites, is the guarantee of complete arrest in the liver. We report on an approach for assessing adequacy of attenuation of genetically attenuated sporozoites in vivo using the Plasmodium berghei model of malaria and P. falciparum(More)
Difficulties with inducing sterile and long lasting protective immunity against malaria with subunit vaccines has renewed interest in vaccinations with attenuated Plasmodium parasites. Immunizations with sporozoites that are attenuated by radiation (RAS) can induce strong protective immunity both in humans and rodent models of malaria. Recently, in rodent(More)
The Plasmodium-infected hepatocyte has been considered necessary to prime the immune responses leading to sterile protection after vaccination with attenuated sporozoites. However, it has recently been demonstrated that priming also occurs in the skin. We wished to establish if sterile protection could be obtained in the absence of priming by infected(More)
BACKGROUND Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is(More)
The in vitro activities of 25 quinolones and fluoroquinolones against erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and against liver stages of Plasmodium yoelii yoelii and P. falciparum were studied. All compounds were inhibitory for chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum grown in red blood cells. This inhibitory effect increased with(More)