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In primary care research interventional studies often address organisational changes or educational interventions, for example, in the context of guideline implementation. For pragmatic reasons randomisation is often conducted at practice level instead of at the individual patient level. Patients from one practice form a cluster, thus violating the basic(More)
OBJECTIVE Epidemiologic surveys frequently show that women more often and are more affected by low back pain (LBP). The aim of this secondary analysis of a randomized controlled study was to explore whether presentation and course of LBP of women is different from men, and if sex affects the use of healthcare services for LBP. METHODS Data from 1342 [778(More)
Recognizing patients at risk of developing chronic low back pain is essential for targeted interventions. One of the best researched screening instruments for this purpose is the Örebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire (ÖMSPQ). This work addresses psychometric properties of the German ÖMSPQ short form and its construct and prognostic validity. Analyses(More)
BACKGROUND Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. METHODS This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs)(More)
The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors"(More)
BACKGROUND Acupuncture is a frequently used but controversial adjunct to the treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP). Acupuncture is now considered to be effective for chronic LBP and health care systems are pressured to make a decision whether or not acupuncture should be covered. It has been suggested that providing such services might reduce the use of(More)
BACKGROUND Ambroxol has a local anaesthetic action and is marketed for pain relief for sore throat. The objective is to examine the efficacy and safety of ambroxol for the relief of pain associated with acute uncomplicated sore throat. METHODS A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Selection criteria consisted of randomized controlled(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effectiveness of a TTM-based motivational counselling approach by trained practice nurses to promote physical activity of low back pain patients in a German primary care setting. METHODS Data were collected in a cluster-randomized controlled trial with three study arms via questionnaires and patient interviews at baseline and(More)