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Stroke is the third leading cause of death, and vascular dementia the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. CADASIL (for cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy) causes a type of stroke and dementia whose key features include recurrent subcortical ischaemic events and vascular dementia and(More)
Presentation of antigenic peptides by human leukocyte antigen class I molecules is dependent on peptide transport into the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP) (Germain, R. N. 1994. Cell. 76:287-299). This translocation step is currently regarded as permissive for all peptides with COOH-terminal residues capable(More)
Previous studies have suggested more than 20 genetic intervals that are associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D), but identification of specific genes has been challenging and largely limited to known candidate genes. Here, we report evidence for an association between T1D and multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 197 kb of genomic DNA(More)
CD3-specific antibodies have the unique capacity to restore self-tolerance in established autoimmunity. They induce long-term remission of overt diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and in human type I diabetes. The underlying mechanisms had been unclear until now. Here we report that treatment with CD3epsilon-specific antibodies induces transferable(More)
BACKGROUND Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease that leads to a major loss of insulin-secreting beta cells. The further decline of beta-cell function after clinical onset might be prevented by treatment with CD3 monoclonal antibodies, as suggested by the results of a phase 1 study. To provide proof of this therapeutic principle(More)
The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice may be favored by immune dysregulation leading to the hyporesponsiveness of regulatory T cells and activation of effector T-helper type 1 (Th1) cells. The immunoregulatory activity of natural killer T (NKT) cells is well documented, and both interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 secreted by NKT cells have(More)
BACKGROUND CADASIL (cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy) is commonly overlooked or misdiagnosed owing to its recent identification and its variable mode of presentation. The defective gene in CADASIL is Notch3, which encodes a large transmembrane receptor. To set up a diagnostic test and to delineate(More)
Having been long debated, the notion of suppressor T cells--renamed regulatory T cells--is back on the map, but many questions remain regarding the nature of these regulatory cells. Are they specialized cells? What are their phenotype, antigen specificity, mode of action and, above all, biological (and immunopathological) relevance? The predominant role of(More)