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beta-lactam antibiotics are ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, being rapidly hydrolyzed by the chromosomally encoded blaC gene product. The carbapenem class of beta-lactams are very poor substrates for BlaC, allowing us to determine the three-dimensional structure of the covalent BlaC-meropenem covalent complex at 1.8 angstrom resolution. When(More)
Members of the beta-lactam class of antibiotics, which inhibit the bacterial d,d-transpeptidases involved in cell wall biosynthesis, have never been used systematically in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections because of this organism's resistance to beta-lactams. The critical resistance factor is the constitutive production of a(More)
Synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-lactate (D-Lac) is thought to be responsible for glycopeptide resistance in members of the order Actinomycetales that produce these drugs and in related soil bacteria. More recently, the peptidoglycan of several members of the order Actinomycetales was shown to be cross-linked by L,D-transpeptidases that use(More)
Recent clinical studies indicate that meropenem, a β-lactam antibiotic, is a promising candidate for therapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis. However, meropenem is chemically unstable, requires frequent intravenous injection, and must be combined with a β-lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate) for optimal activity. Here, we report that faropenem, a stable and(More)
The beta-lactam antibiotics mimic the D-alanyl(4)-D-alanine(5) extremity of peptidoglycan precursors and act as "suicide" substrates of the DD-transpeptidases that catalyze the last cross-linking step of peptidoglycan synthesis. We have previously shown that bypass of the dd-transpeptidases by the LD-transpeptidase of Enterococcus faecium (Ldt(fm)) leads to(More)
We report here the first direct assessment of the specificity of a class of peptidoglycan cross-linking enzymes, the L,D-transpeptidases, for the highly diverse structure of peptidoglycan precursors of Gram-positive bacteria. The lone functionally characterized member of this new family of active site cysteine peptidases, Ldt(fm) from Enterococcus faecium,(More)
The peptidoglycan cross-bridges of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium consist of the sequences Gly(5), l-Ala(2), and d-Asx, respectively. Expression of the fmhB, femA, and femB genes of S. aureus in E. faecalis led to the production of peptidoglycan precursors substituted by mosaic side chains that were efficiently used(More)
D-aspartate ligase has remained the last unidentified peptide bond-forming enzyme in the peptidoglycan assembly pathway of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we show that a two-gene cluster of Enterococcus faecium encodes aspartate racemase (Racfm) and ligase (Aslfm) for incorporation of D-Asp into the side chain of the peptidoglycan precursor. Aslfm was(More)
The enzymatic synthesis of the complete l-alanyl(1)-l-alanine(2) side chain of the peptidoglycan precursors of Enterococcus faecalis was obtained in vitro using purified enzymes. The pathway involved alanyl-tRNA synthetase and two ligases, BppA1 and BppA2, that specifically transfer alanine from Ala-tRNA to the first and second positions of the side chain,(More)
We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major(More)