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beta-lactam antibiotics are ineffective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, being rapidly hydrolyzed by the chromosomally encoded blaC gene product. The carbapenem class of beta-lactams are very poor substrates for BlaC, allowing us to determine the three-dimensional structure of the covalent BlaC-meropenem covalent complex at 1.8 angstrom resolution. When(More)
Members of the beta-lactam class of antibiotics, which inhibit the bacterial d,d-transpeptidases involved in cell wall biosynthesis, have never been used systematically in the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections because of this organism's resistance to beta-lactams. The critical resistance factor is the constitutive production of a(More)
The peptidoglycan cross-bridges of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium consist of the sequences Gly(5), l-Ala(2), and d-Asx, respectively. Expression of the fmhB, femA, and femB genes of S. aureus in E. faecalis led to the production of peptidoglycan precursors substituted by mosaic side chains that were efficiently used(More)
The beta-lactam antibiotics remain the most commonly used to treat severe infections. Because of structural similarity between the beta-lactam ring and the d-alanyl(4)-d-alanine(5) extremity of bacterial cell wall precursors, the drugs act as suicide substrates of the dd-transpeptidases that catalyze the last cross-linking step of cell wall assembly. Here,(More)
Synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending in D-lactate (D-Lac) is thought to be responsible for glycopeptide resistance in members of the order Actinomycetales that produce these drugs and in related soil bacteria. More recently, the peptidoglycan of several members of the order Actinomycetales was shown to be cross-linked by L,D-transpeptidases that use(More)
We report here the first direct assessment of the specificity of a class of peptidoglycan cross-linking enzymes, the L,D-transpeptidases, for the highly diverse structure of peptidoglycan precursors of Gram-positive bacteria. The lone functionally characterized member of this new family of active site cysteine peptidases, Ldt(fm) from Enterococcus faecium,(More)
During the final stages of cell-wall synthesis in bacteria, penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) catalyse the cross-linking of peptide chains from adjacent glycan strands of nascent peptidoglycan. We have recently shown that this step can be bypassed by an L,D-transpeptidase, which confers high-level beta-lactam-resistance in Enterococcus faecium. The(More)
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis peptidoglycan is cross-linked mainly by l,d-transpeptidases (LDTs), which are efficiently inactivated by a single β-lactam class, the carbapenems. Development of carbapenems for tuberculosis treatment has recently raised considerable interest since these drugs, in association with the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanic acid, are(More)
D-aspartate ligase has remained the last unidentified peptide bond-forming enzyme in the peptidoglycan assembly pathway of Gram-positive bacteria. Here we show that a two-gene cluster of Enterococcus faecium encodes aspartate racemase (Racfm) and ligase (Aslfm) for incorporation of D-Asp into the side chain of the peptidoglycan precursor. Aslfm was(More)
Bypass of the penicillin-binding proteins by an L,D-transpeptidase (Ldt(fm)) confers cross-resistance to beta-lactam and glycopeptide antibiotics in mutants of Enterococcus faecium selected in vitro. Ldt(fm) is produced by the parental strain D344S although it insignificantly contributes to peptidoglycan cross-linking as pentapeptide stems cannot be used as(More)