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This paper discusses both the history and future of programming languages ( = higher level languages). Some of the difficulties in writing such a history are indicated. A key part of the paper is a tree showing the chronological development of languages and their interrelationships. Reasons for the proliferation of languages are given. The major languages(More)
This paper discusses the early history of COBOL, starting with the May 1959 meeting in the Pentagon which established the Short Range Committee which defined the initial version of COBOL, and continuing through the creation of COBOL 61. The paper gives a detailed description of the committee activities leading to the publication of the first official(More)
A search for narrow resonances in the dijet mass spectrum is performed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.9 pb⁻¹ collected by the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Upper limits at the 95% confidence level are presented on the product of the resonance cross section, branching fraction into dijets, and acceptance, separately(More)
The production of jets associated to bottom quarks is measured for the first time in PbPb collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. Jet spectra are reported in the transverse momentum (p(T)) range of 80-250  GeV/c, and within pseudorapidity |η|<2. The nuclear modification factor (R(AA)) calculated from these spectra shows a strong(More)
Results are presented from a search for heavy, right-handed muon neutrinos, N(μ), and right-handed W(R) bosons, which arise in the left-right symmetric extensions of the standard model. The analysis is based on a 5.0  fb(-1) sample of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No(More)
This paper discusses ZBMs technical contributions to high level programming languages from the viewpoint of speciJic languages and their contributions to the technology. The philosophy used in this paper is that it is the appropriate collection of features in a language which generally makes the contribution to the technology, rather than an individual(More)
I am pleased to announce that after consultation with all the other people involved, I have decided to adopt and implement the new Computing Reviews classification system, incorporating the changes described on page 14 by Anthony Ralston. The final version is on pages 17-25. Despite our having given people very little time, the responses we received were(More)
The purpose of this talk is to make a personal plea, backed up by some practical comments, for the use of English or anyone else's natural language as a programming language. This seems to be a suitable subject for the conference, since whatever definition of pragmatics is decided upon, it certainly seems to be tied in with the users of any programming(More)