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The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Knowledge of the structure and function of the genes and proteins of the rotaviruses has expanded rapidly. Information obtained in the last 5 years has revealed unexpected and unique molecular properties of rotavirus proteins of general interest to virologists, biochemists, and cell biologists. Rotaviruses share some features of replication with reoviruses,(More)
Small eyes (Sey) is a semidominant, homozygous lethal mutation in the mouse (Roberts, 1967). It is allelic with SeyH, a radiation-induced homozygous prenatal lethal which has been mapped on chromosome 2. The effect of the Sey mutation is apparently limited to the growth and differentiation of the presumptive lens and nasal placodes. Homozygous Sey/Sey(More)
Most eukaryotic mRNAs contain a 5'cap structure and a 3'poly(A) sequence that synergistically increase the efficiency of translation. Rotavirus mRNAs are capped, but lack poly(A) sequences. During rotavirus infection, the viral protein NSP3A is bound to the viral mRNAs 3' end. We looked for cellular proteins that could interact with NSP3A, using the(More)
Rotaviruses are large, complex icosahedral particles consisting of three concentric capsid layers. When the innermost capsid protein VP2 is expressed in the baculovirus-insect cell system it assembles as core-like particles. The amino terminus region of VP2 is dispensable for assembly of virus-like particles (VLP). Coexpression of VP2 and VP6 produces(More)
Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short(More)
Ciliopathies, pleiotropic diseases provoked by defects in the structure or function of cilia or flagella, reflect the multiple roles of cilia during development, in stem cells, in somatic organs and germ cells. High throughput studies have revealed several hundred proteins that are involved in the composition, function or biogenesis of cilia. The(More)
Chick embryo retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons grow to the optic tectum along a stereotyped route, as if responding to cues distributed along the pathway. We showed previously that, in culture, RGCs from embryonic Day 6 retina are responsive to the neurite-promoting effects of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein laminin and that this response is lost by(More)
The structural protein VP6 of rotavirus, an important pathogen responsible for severe gastroenteritis in children, forms the middle layer in the triple-layered viral capsid. Here we present the crystal structure of VP6 determined to 2 A resolution and describe its interactions with other capsid proteins by fitting the atomic model into electron(More)
In an attempt to identify proteins that might underlie membrane trafficking processes in ciliates, calcium-dependent, phospholipid-binding proteins were isolated from extracts of Paramecium tetraurelia. The major protein obtained, named copine, had a mass of 55 kDa, bound phosphatidylserine but not phosphatidylcholine at micromolar levels of calcium but not(More)