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Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2) are two endogenous opioid peptides with high affinity and remarkable selectivity for the mu-opioid receptor. The neuroanatomical distribution of endomorphins reflects their potential endogenous role in many major physiological processes, which include perception of pain, responses(More)
In this study we have demonstrated that cyclohexane extract of Hypericum polyanthemum (POL) and its main phloroglucinol derivative uliginosin B (ULI) present antidepressant-like activity in rodent forced swimming test (FST). The involvement of monoaminergic neurotransmission on the antidepressant-like activity of ULI was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. POL(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), exert anorexigenic activities. While alpha-MSH is known to inhibit food intake and stimulate catabolism via activation of the central melanocortin-receptor MC4-R, little is known regarding the(More)
Endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2)) and endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2)) are two recently isolated mu-opioid selective peptides with a potent antinociceptive activity, involved in a number of physiological processes, including food intake, vasomotricity, sexual behavior, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiorespiratory functions. The neuroanatomical(More)
The biological effects of endomorphins (EMs) are short-lasting due to their rapid degradation by endogenous enzymes. Competing enzymatic degradation is an approach to prolong EM bioavailability. In the present study, a series of tetra- and tripeptides of similar to EMs structure was synthesized and tested in vitro and in vivo for their ability to inhibit(More)
A novel 26-amino acid peptide possessing the Arg-Phe-NH(2) motif at its C-terminal extremity has been recently characterized and named 26RFamide (26RFa). The 26RFa precursor encompasses several potential cleavage sites and thus may generate various mature peptides including an N-terminally extended form of 26RFa (termed 43RFa), two fragments of 26RFa(More)
Although tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is known to promote neuronal remodeling in the CNS, no mechanism of how this plastic function takes place has been reported so far. We provide here in vitro and in vivo demonstrations that this serine protease neutralizes inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by promoting their degradation via the(More)
The cyclic peptide urotensin II (UII) was originally isolated from the urophysis of teleost fish on the basis of its ability to contract intestinal smooth muscle. The UII peptide has subsequently been isolated from frog brain and, later on, the pre-proUII cDNA has been characterized in mammals, including humans. A UII paralog called urotensin II-related(More)
Obese individuals often have increased appetite despite normal plasma levels of the main orexigenic hormone ghrelin. Here we show that ghrelin degradation in the plasma is inhibited by ghrelin-reactive IgG immunoglobulins, which display increased binding affinity to ghrelin in obese patients and mice. Co-administration of ghrelin together with IgG from(More)
Urotensin-II (U-II) and urotensin-II-related peptide (URP) have been identified as the endogenous ligands of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR14 now renamed UT. The occurrence of U-II and URP in the central nervous system, and the widespread distribution of UT in the brain suggest that U-II and URP may play various behavioral activities. Studies(More)