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Optic atrophy type 1 (OPA1, MIM 165500) is a dominantly inherited optic neuropathy occurring in 1 in 50,000 individuals that features progressive loss in visual acuity leading, in many cases, to legal blindness. Phenotypic variations and loss of retinal ganglion cells, as found in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), have suggested possible(More)
We report the identification and characterization of CTR1, a gene in the yeast S. cerevisiae that encodes a multispanning plasma membrane protein specifically required for high affinity copper transport into the cell. The predicted protein contains a methionine- and serine-rich domain that includes 11 examples of the sequence Met-X2-Met, a motif noted in(More)
We conducted virus-isolation studies on 56 specimens from the nervous system of 45 patients in order to determine whether human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type III (HTLV-III) is directly involved in the pathogenesis of the neurologic disorders frequently encountered in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the AIDS-related complex. We recovered(More)
The gene responsible for Friedreich's ataxia, a disease characterized by neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy, has recently been cloned and its product designated frataxin. A gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized whose predicted protein product has high sequence similarity to the human frataxin protein. The yeast gene (yeast frataxin homolog,(More)
Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA, MIM 204,000), the earliest and most severe form of inherited retinopathy, accounts for at least 5% of all inherited retinal dystrophies. This autosomal recessive condition is usually recognized at birth or during the first months of life in an infant with total blindness or greatly impaired vision, normal fundus and(More)
S. cerevisiae accumulate iron by a process requiring a ferrireductase and a ferrous transporter. We have isolated a mutant, fet3, defective for high affinity Fe(II) uptake. The wild-type FET3 gene was isolated by complementation of the mutant defect. Sequence analysis of the gene revealed the presence of an open reading frame coding for a protein with(More)
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, uptake of iron is largely regulated by the transcription factor Aft1. cDNA microarrays were used to identify new iron and AFT1-regulated genes. Four homologous genes regulated as part of the AFT1-regulon (ARN1-4) were predicted to encode members of a subfamily of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. These(More)
Iron is required for the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. High concentrations of iron, however, are toxic, forcing this yeast to tightly regulate its concentration of intracellular free iron. We demonstrate that S. cerevisiae accumulates iron through the combined action of a plasma membrane ferrireductase and an Fe(II) transporter. This transporter is(More)
The gene that is defective in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy consists of about 60 short exons scattered along a gigantic DNA region that spans some 2 megabase pairs. The encoded protein, dystrophin, was recently characterized as a component of muscle intracellular membranes of low abundance. The dystrophin messenger RNA is difficult to(More)
Usher syndrome represents the association of a hearing impairment with retinitis pigmentosa and is the most frequent cause of deaf-blindness in humans. It is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait which is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Some patients show abnormal organization of microtubules in the axoneme of their photoreceptors cells(More)