Jean-Christophe Houzel

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Defective brain insulin signaling has been suggested to contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a connection between AD and diabetes has been suggested, a major unknown is the mechanism(s) by which insulin resistance in the brain arises in individuals with AD. Here, we show that serine phosphorylation of(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes appear to share similar pathogenic mechanisms. dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) underlies peripheral insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α-P), and AD brains exhibit elevated phospho-PKR and eIF2α-P levels. Whether and how PKR and(More)
The isolectin Vicia villosa B(4) (VV) selectively recognizes N-acetyl-galactosamine-terminal glycoconjugates that form perineuronal nets (PNNs) around a subset of neurons in the cerebral cortex. PNNs are thought to participate in the guidance of incoming thalamic axons and in the posterior stabilization and maintenance of synaptic contacts. Here we examine(More)
Protein aggregation and amyloid accumulation in different tissues are associated with cellular dysfunction and toxicity in important human pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease and various forms of systemic amyloidosis. Soluble oligomers formed at the early stages of protein aggregation have been increasingly recognized as the main toxic species in(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) affects at least 6.5 million people worldwide, irrespective of gender, social, ethnic, economic, or geographic boundaries. Key symptoms, such as tremor, rigidity and bradikinesia, develop when about 3/4 of dopaminergic cells are lost in the substantia nigra, and fail to provide for the smooth, coordinated regulation of striatal(More)
Cytoarchitectural modifications of the dentate gyrus are among the most obvious abnormalities observed in the hippocampal sclerosis associated with refractory epilepsy. Here, we examined the morphological changes of granular cells (dispersion, bilamination and cell loss) in sclerotic hippocampi from nine TLE patients, comparing abnormal and preserved areas.(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an incurable progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Clinical presentation of PD stems largely from the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, motivating experimental strategies of replacement based on cell therapy. Transplantation of dopaminergic neurons derived from embryonic stem cells(More)
Müller cells constitute the main glial cell type in the retina where it interacts with virtually all cells displaying relevant functions to retinal physiology. Under appropriate stimuli, Müller cells may undergo dedifferentiation, being able to generate other neural cell types. Here, we show that purified mouse Müller cells in culture express a group of(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and a major medical problem. Here, we have investigated the impact of amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers, AD-related neurotoxins, in the brains of rats and adult nonhuman primates (cynomolgus macaques). Soluble Aβ oligomers are known to accumulate in the brains of AD patients and correlate with(More)
Astroglial cells are involved in directional movements of neurons such as migration of the neuronal cell body and growth of neurites. In the mammalian midbrain, medial (M) and lateral (L) radial glia and derived astrocytes differ in their ability to support neuritic growth. In previous work, we have demonstrated that the growthpermissive ability of L(More)