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Podosomes, small actin-based adhesion structures, differ from focal adhesions in two aspects: their core structure and their ability to organize into large patterns in osteoclasts. To address the mechanisms underlying these features, we imaged live preosteoclasts expressing green fluorescent protein-actin during their differentiation. We observe that(More)
We report a study of the paths formed by a finite volume of air gently injected at the base of an immersed granular material. A two-dimensional model, based on experimental observations, shows that the typical height and width of the region explored by the branched path depends not only on the injected volume V, but also on a dimensionless parameter χ which(More)
We report the formation of a crater at the free surface of an immersed granular bed, locally crossed by an ascending gas flow. In two dimensions, the crater consists of two piles which develop around the location of the gas emission. We observe that the typical size of the crater increases logarithmically with time, independently of the gas emission(More)
We report an experimental study of the intermittent dynamics of a gas flowing through a column of a non-Newtonian fluid. In a given range of the imposed constant flow rate, the system spontaneously alternates between two regimes: bubbles emitted at the bottom either rise independently one from the other or merge to create a winding flue which then connects(More)
Podosomes are involved in the adhesion process of various cells to a solid substrate. They have been proven to consist of a dense actin core surrounded by an actin cloud. The podosomes, which nucleate when the cell comes in the vicinity of a substrate, contribute to link the membrane to the solid surface, but rather than frozen links, collective dynamical(More)
Air is injected locally at the base of an immersed granular bed. The gas, which is forced to flow gently through the material, creates several paths between the grains. We observe that the latter gas venting results in the emission of bubbles in a localized region at the free surface. Additional experiments, performed in two dimensions, permit a direct(More)
We investigate the morphology and dynamics of the region invaded by air injected at the bottom of an immersed granular bed. Previous experimental results point out the formation of a fluidized zone with a parabolic shape which does not depend, in the stationary regime, on the injection flow-rate. By tilting the experiment, we can tune the effective gravity(More)
We simultaneously measure the flow rate and the normal force on the base, near the outlet, during the discharge through an orifice of a dense packing of monosized disks driven by a conveyor belt. We find that the normal force on the base decreases even when a constant flow rate is measured. In addition, we show, by changing the mass of the disks, that(More)
Vibrated granular materials have been intensively used to investigate particle segregation, convection, and heaping. We report on the behavior of a column of heavy grains bouncing on an oscillating solid surface. Measurements indicate that, for weak effects of the interstitial gas, the temporal variations of the pressure at the base of the column are(More)