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Collagen fibrils, cable-like assemblies of long biological molecules, the so-called triple helices, are dominant components of connective tissues. Their determinant morphological and functional roles motivated a large number of studies concerning their formation and structure. However, these two points are still open questions and, particularly, that of the(More)
Phyllotaxis, the search for the most homogeneous and dense organizations of small disks inside a large circular domain, was first developed to analyze arrangements of leaves or florets in plants. Then it has become an object of study not only in botany, but also in mathematics, computer simulations and physics. Although the mathematical solution is now well(More)
The formation of toroidal aggregates by long chiral molecules of biological origin, as collagen, f-actin and DNA, or by chiral synthetic polypeptides has been observed in specific ionic environments. Such aggregates have received considerable attention in order to identify the various physical factors susceptible to contribute to this original(More)
Phyllotaxis describes the arrangement of florets, scales or leaves in composite flowers or plants (daisy, aster, sunflower, pinecone, pineapple). As a structure, it is a geometrical foam, the most homogeneous and densest covering of a large disk by Voronoi cells (the florets), constructed by a simple algorithm: Points placed regularly on a generative spiral(More)
Yves Bouligand's analysis of the organizations of biological materials in relation to those of liquid crystals enabled the development of the idea that physical forces exerting their actions under strong spatial constraints determine the structures and morphologies of these materials. The different levels of organization in collagen have preoccupied him for(More)
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