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BACKGROUND Giardia duodenalis is highly endemic in East Africa but its effects on child health, particularly of submicroscopic infections, i.e., those below the threshold of microscopy, and of genetic subgroups (assemblages), are not well understood. We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in(More)
Diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematodes relies predominantly on coproscopic methods such as flotation, Kato-Katz, McMaster or FLOTAC. Although FLOTAC allows accurate quantification, many nematode eggs can only be differentiated to genus or family level. Several molecular diagnostic tools discriminating closely related species suffer from high costs for DNA(More)
BACKGROUND The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. OBJECTIVE The present(More)
BACKGROUND Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. OBJECTIVE This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in(More)
To determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Rwanda and the influence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on anemia, we analyzed 200 HIV-positive women and 50 HIV-negative women in a cross-sectional study. Clinical examinations and iron and vitamin B(12) assays were performed,(More)
Increased control has produced remarkable reductions of malaria in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, including Rwanda. In the southern highlands, near the district capital of Butare (altitude, 1,768 m), a combined community-and facility-based survey on Plasmodium infection was conducted early in 2010. A total of 749 children below five years of age were(More)
Biofortification of plants is a new approach to combat iron deficiency. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) can be bred with a higher iron concentration but are rich in iron absorption inhibitors, phytic acid (PA), and polyphenols (PP). To evaluate the potential of beans to combat iron deficiency, three iron absorption studies were carried out in 61 Rwandese(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute symptomatic infection with Giardia duodenalis impairs iron absorption, but iron deficiency may protect against infections caused by various micro-organisms including parasites. We therefore examined the association of G. duodenalis infection and iron deficiency in 575 Rwandan children under 5 years of age. METHODS Giardia duodenalis(More)
In Rwanda, frequent mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes of Plasmodium falciparum have suggested intense sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance. However, data on pfmdr1 are not available but might be important in the context of the first-line treatment with artemether-lumefantrine. During a survey among 749 children under five years of age in southern(More)
The Q248H mutation in the gene SLC40A1 which encodes for the cellular iron exporter ferroportin is relatively common in Africa. This mutation has been associated with resistance to hepcidin and therefore we hypothesized that iron-related parameters and the prevalence of opportunistic infections in HIV might be influenced by the Q248H mutation. We conducted(More)