( S)-Glutamic acid (Glu) is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) activating the plethora of ionotropic Glu receptors (iGluRs) and metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluRs). In this paper, we present a chemo-enzymatic strategy for the enantioselective synthesis of five new Glu analogues 2a- f ( 2d is exempt) holding a… (More)
In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), the action of sodium dependent excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) is responsible for termination of glutamatergic neurotransmission by reuptake of ( S) -glutamate (Glu) from the synaptic cleft. Five EAAT subtypes have been identified, of which EAAT1-4 are present in the CNS, while EAAT5 is localized… (More)
We present a theoretical study of the interplay between cyclotron motion and spin splitting of charge carriers in solids. While many of our results apply more generally, we focus especially on discussing the Rashba model describing electrons in the conduction band of asymmetric semiconductor heterostructures. Appropriate semiclassical limits are… (More)
We present a unified description of zitterbewegung-like phenomena for electron and hole systems showing Rashba spin splitting as well as for electrons in single-layer and bilayer graphene. The former class of systems can be interpreted as " nonrelativistic " whereas the latter are often called " ultrarelativistic " so that our unified description indicates… (More)
The (2S,4R)- and (2S,4S)-4-hydroxyglutamates activate cloned mGlu(1a), mGlu(2), and mGlu(8a) receptors with different potencies. Best results were obtained with the (2S,4S) isomer being almost as potent as glutamate on mGlu(1a)R and mGlu(8a)R. Data are interpreted on the basis of the binding site model and X-ray structure.