Jeak Ling Ding

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The complement system has been thought to originate exclusively in the deuterostomes. Here, we show that the central complement components already existed in the primitive protostome lineage. A functional homolog of vertebrate complement 3, CrC3, has been isolated from a 'living fossil', the horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda). CrC3 resembles(More)
The fifth and the most well-conserved member of the TLR (Toll-like receptor) adaptor, SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein), has been reported to be an important mediator of apoptosis. However, the exact cellular localization of SARM with respect to its role is unclear. In the present study we show that SARM specifically co-localizes(More)
The evolutionary conservation of the NF-kappaB transcription factors, from Drosophila to humans, underscores its pivotal role in immune response. Unexpectedly, the canonical NF-kappaB signaling pathway is not functional in the immune system of Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, the ancient origin of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway is still unknown. Here, we(More)
Following acute-phase infection, activated T cells are terminated to achieve immune homeostasis, failure of which results in lymphoproliferative and autoimmune diseases. We report that sterile α- and heat armadillo-motif-containing protein (SARM), the most conserved Toll-like receptors adaptor, is proapoptotic during T-cell immune response. SARM expression(More)
The knowledge of how organisms fight infections has largely been built upon the ability of host innate immune molecules to recognize microbial determinants. Although of overwhelming importance, pathogen recognition is but only one of the facets of innate immunity. A primitive yet effective antimicrobial mechanism which operates by depriving microbial(More)
SARM (sterile alpha- and armadillo-motif-containing protein), the fifth identified TIR (Toll-interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R)) domain-containing adaptors in humans, downregulates NF-kappaB and IRF3 (interferon-regulatory factor 3)-mediated TLR3 and TLR4 signaling. SARM was characterized as a negative regulator of the TRIF (TIR-domain-containing adaptor(More)
For nearly five decades since its discovery, the role of natural IgG, which pre-exists in neonates and uninfected individuals, has remained unclear due to the general perception that natural antibodies lack affinity for pathogens. Here, we show for the first time that natural IgG recognizes a spectrum of bacteria through lectins like ficolin and mannose(More)
Pyrogens are substances (usually of biological origin) that cause fever after injection. The best-studied pyrogen is lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also known as endotoxin), found in the membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. During Gramnegative sepsis, endotoxin stimulates host macrophages to release inflammatory cytokines and excessive inflammation causes multiple(More)
The evolution of the host-pathogen relationship comprises a series of invasive-defensive tactics elicited by both participants. The stereotype is that the antimicrobial immune response requires multistep processes. Little is known about the primordial immunosurveillance system, which probably has components that directly link sensors and effectors. Here we(More)
Transferrin (Tf) is a multifunctional, iron binding protein found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Although transferrin has been suggested to play a role in innate immunity, its immunological function during infection has not been characterized. In this study, we identified and characterized Bombyx mori transferrin (BmTf). The promoter region of BmTf(More)