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The complexity of the human brain's activity and connectivity varies over temporal scales and is altered in disease states such as schizophrenia. Using a multi-level analysis of spontaneous low-frequency fMRI data stretching from the activity of individual brain regions to the coordinated connectivity pattern of the whole brain, we investigate the role of(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is characterized by a lack of integration between thought, emotion, and behavior. A disruption in the connectivity between brain processes may underlie this schism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were used to evaluate functional and anatomical brain connectivity in schizophrenia. (More)
OBJECTIVE Major depressive disorder (MDD) occurs frequently in adolescents, but the neurobiology of depression in youth is poorly understood. Structural neuroimaging studies in both adult and pediatric populations have implicated frontolimbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which measures white matter (WM)(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) begins frequently in adolescence and is associated with severe outcomes, but the developmental neurobiology of MDD is not well understood. Research in adults has implicated fronto-limbic neural networks in the pathophysiology of MDD, particularly in relation to the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Developmental(More)
The present study evaluated the effect of context on behavior and brain activity during saccade tasks. FMRI and eye movement data were collected while 36 participants completed three runs in a block design: (1) fixation alternating with pro-saccades, (2) fixation alternating with anti-saccades, and (3) pro- alternating with anti-saccades. Two task-related(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides anatomical connectivity information by examining the directional organization of white matter microstructure. Anatomical connectivity and its abnormalities may be heritable traits associated with schizophrenia. To further examine this hypothesis, two studies were conducted to compare anatomical connectivity between(More)
BACKGROUND Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cocaine use is associated with frontal lobe abnormalities. Functional connectivity (FC) alterations of cocaine-dependent individuals (CD), however, are not yet clear. This is the first study to our knowledge that examines resting FC of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in CD. Because ACC is known(More)
BACKGROUND Schizophrenia is characterized by executive functioning deficits, presumably mediated by prefrontal cortex dysfunction. For example, schizophrenia participants show performance deficits on ocular motor delayed response (ODR) tasks, which require both inhibition and spatial working memory for correct performance. METHODS The present functional(More)
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a complex psychiatric disorder that involves the core feature of affect dysregulation. Prior neuroimaging studies have indicated that BPD patients have (1) excessive amygdala activation to negative emotion and (2) diminished frontal regulation. This study examined amygdala functional connectivity in 12 women with BPD(More)
Short-term abstinent alcoholics have shown increased engagement of reward regions and reduced engagement of executive control regions. There is no report yet on whether these differences can predict relapse. This is the first study that investigates whether differences in resting-state networks can predict later relapse. Resting-state functional magnetic(More)